Atoms

What is an Atom?

An atom is a combination of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons and electrons.  Protons and neutrons are found in the core, nucleus, of the atom and the electron is found far from this nucleus in what is known as an atomic orbital.  It may be helpful to picture planets orbiting the Sun, although there are many differences between electrons in orbit around an atomic nucleus and a planet in orbit around the Sun.  An electron does not follow a distinct path like a planet and its orbit has different shapes that depend on the number of protons in the atom.

The simplest atom is a single electron orbiting a single proton (hydrogen). This is most abundant atom in the universe. Protons may bind together in a nucleus, if separated by a neutron, but to remain a stable particle, each proton must have an equivalent electron.  Various configurations of protons, nucleons and electrons can form from 1 proton (hydrogen) to 118 protons (unococtium).

atoms

 

The Atom’s Nucleus

In energy wave theory, the formation of the atomic nucleus is built similar to the formation of particles. Wave centers constantly shift to the node of a standing wave, causing particle spin or particle decay. The nucleus of an atom consists of composite particles – protons and neutrons. They are built from particles, which consist of wave centers, thus everything follows the same fundamental rule of motion – to minimize wave amplitude.

The formation of the protons in the nucleus are a result of particles at standing wave nodes. When in proximity of standing waves, the node is the point of minimal amplitude. This is the strong and nuclear force and results in a strong bind of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. But to remain stable, they must be at multiples of wavelengths to be on the standing wave node. The three-dimensional formation that allows this structure is the tetrahedron.

The section on the atomic nucleus provides details on how protons and neutrons stack in arrangement following tetrahedral shapes for wave stability. An example is shown below for neon, calcium and zinc which all complete rows in a sequence of the Periodic Table of Elements. It coincides with tetrahedral symmetry.

Nucleus

 

The Atom’s Orbitals

Electrons do not orbit an atomic nucleus like the Earth orbits the Sun.  The original Bohr model of the atom was modeled similar to the gravitational pull of planets and stars, but it failed to explain and calculate the position of the electron using classical mechanics. Quantum mechanics evolved to solve this issue and other notable problems in the subatomic world that could not be explained.

 

Orbital Position

The electron stays in an orbital and this orbital is successfully modeled as the distance where the sum of the forces on an electron is zero. The electron is essentially being pushed and pulled at the same time, as described below. This model explains why the electron stays in an orbit around a proton, yet annihilates with a positron which has an identical charge as the proton.

Forces on electron

Electron in an Atomic Orbital – Attracted and Repelled by Proton

 

The electron is attracted (F1) and repelled (F2) by the proton and the orbital is the position where the sum of the forces is zero. This explanation requires an understanding of the proton’s structure, which is modeled in energy wave theory as a pentaquark. The pentaquark is shown below (Q1). The center positron is the attractive force. When the electron aligns with the tetrahedral vertices of the proton (bound by the strong force), it is repelled by the second wave. The details of each force are provided below.

Orbital Forces

 

Attractive Force

Using the pentaquark model, the electron is attracted to the nucleus of a proton, being attracted to the anti-quark (or positron) that is likely at the center of the structure. The attractive force is the Coulomb force which decreases with the inverse square of the distance.  This is modeled below as Force 1 (F1).

Attractive Force of Proton

 

Repelling Force

If it were only an attractive force, the electron would annihilate with an anti-quark (or positron).  Fortunately, for all of living matter that is based on atoms, the electron is also repelled by the additional particles in the proton.  In the proposed pentaquark model, there are four quarks (or possibly high-energy electrons) that bind together in the vertices of a tetrahedron for three-dimensional stability.  These interactions produce the strong force at close range, within standing waves. Beyond standing waves, it is a repelling force that is an axial force modeled below as Force 2 (F2).  It  is stronger than the Coulomb force at short distances, but it decreases with the inverse cube of distance. This creates a distance where the two forces are equal and establishes the orbit for the electron.

Repelling Force of Proton

 

Orbital Distances, Shapes and Leaps

This model of the proton with both an attractive and repelling force not only provides an equation to model the electron’s distance from the nucleus, but it also explains the curious shapes of the orbitals and the reason for the quantum leaps of the electron. A page is devoted to explaining each of these using the pentaquark structure of the proton.

 

Where is the Proof?

The calculations, derivations and explanations in this section include the following:

  • Calculations
    • 20 orbital distances from hydrogen to calcium for neutral elements are calculated and compared with measured results.
    • Over 400 orbital distances for ionized elements from hydrogen to calcium are calculated and compared with measured results (for ionized configurations from one to twelve electrons).
    • Photon ionization energies were calculated using these orbital distances and were shown in the Photons section.
  •  Explanations
    • The proposed tetrahedral nucleus structure that gives rise to the periodic sequence in the Periodic Table of Elements.
    • The probability cloud and orbital shapes of the s, p, d and f atomic orbitals.
    • An explanation for the quantum jump of the electron between orbitals.
    • The same pentaquark model of the proton used for orbital distances is also used to accurately calculate the strong force.
  • Derivations

 

Video Summary