D Orbital Shape

D Orbital

The d orbital contains 10 electrons. This is the 4th level of the tetrahedron.  This is illustrated in the figure below.  Note that the 3s and 3p protons are not shown in this tetrahedral view, but are addressed in section on nucleus structure.

Protons forming in nucleus. The d orbital has ten protons to complete a fourth level of a tetrahedral structure.

With three spin-aligned protons, it would have a spherical shape, yet four times during the rotation it will have gluons that align with a proton of the opposite spin to force an electron out to 4d.

Four points in the proton’s spin rotation have an intersection where the axial force aligns for opposite spin protons

Shape

The d orbital is a clover shape because the electron is pushed out four times during the rotation when an opposite spin proton aligns gluons with three spin-aligned protons.

Dumbbell shape of d orbital due to four points in rotation where sum of forces is not at 3d distance

Proton Fill Order

At Z=21, scandium (Sc) is the first element that begins a d orbital.  As protons always build from the center then outwards for stability, the first proton is placed in the center (refer to the figure below).  In a 4th row of a tetrahedron, this is the first time that a unit is in the center of axis of rotation.  This creates a unique shape relative to other d orbital shapes (refer to shape highlighted in yellow).

Fill order of the 1st d orbital electron (bottom view shown)

The next three elements build outwards from the center, occupying the three sides of the triangle as shown below.  These now have the clover shape as there are four points in the rotation where the repelling, axial force distance changes.  These take place on the x-y, x-z and y-z planes of the tetrahedron while it spins.  This is highlighted in yellow below.

Fill order of the 2nd to 4th d orbital electrons (bottom view shown)

The final spin up proton must be placed on one of the existing three sides.  This is manganese (Mn).  Since it shares a tetrahedral face with another spin up proton (x-y), its orbital will also be in this plane but will be shifted slightly based on the protons location as shown in the figure below.  This is also highlighted in yellow below.

Fill order of the 5th d orbital electron (bottom view shown)

Finally, all of the five spin down protons complete the 4th row of a tetrahedron to complete the orbitals.

Fill order of the spin down orbital electrons (bottom view shown)