Equation
Electron Orbital Distance
Orbital distances are calculated using the statics rule from classical mechanics that an object will remain at rest when the sum of the forces is zero. This requires an assumption that the proton has an attractive (F_{1}) and repelling force (F_{2}) as described by the pentaquark structure of the proton.
Attractive Force – electric force from nucleus (proton)
Classical Constant Form |
Wave Constant Form |
Repelling Force – orbital force from nucleus
Repelling Force – electric force from other electrons in atom*
Using classical constants | Using energy wave constants |
Variables:
- Q_{1} and Q_{2}: A dimensionless count of two particle groups separated at distance
- r: The distance separating the particle groups (in meters)
* Every electron in the atom affects one another. The repelling force on an electron must be solved simultaneously for all electrons to obtain their distances. Each electron requires its own force equation. The orbital location is the sum of all attractive and repelling forces where the force is zero (minimal wave amplitude).
Orbital Location – Sum of Forces is Zero (minimal amplitude)
For example, helium with two electrons would have an attractive force from the nucleus (F_{1}), a repelling force from the nucleus (F_{2}) and another repelling force (F_{3}) from the second electron (on the electron being calculated). The equations are set to equal such as below:
Because there are many combinations of protons and electrons in atomic elements, the distances and angles of each electron relative to the nucleus needs to be considered for the calculation of each force. As a result, there is no single equation for orbital distances.
The explanation of distances and angles for electrons in the atom are detailed below. The methodology and calculations for solving simultaneous equations to arrive at all orbital distances for each electron in the atom is described in more detail on this page. A Mathcad file is available for download for the solutions from hydrogen to calcium using the methodology.
Constructive Wave Interference (Amplitude Factor)
Calculating photon energies in atoms requires two variables: the electron distance from the nucleus and the constructive wave interference at the point where the electron resides. There is no single equation for amplitude factor as it is based on the many particles in the atom and their distances. A summary of the methodology to calculate amplitude factor is on this page.
Explanation of Equation
The axis between the nucleus and the electron being measured is the line where the forces will be calculated (where the sum of the forces is zero). The attractive force (F_{1}) and proton’s repelling force (F_{2}) are on this axis. Each additional electron in the atom has a repelling force that may be on a different axis and its distance is computed based on its orbital and the electron angle (see below).
Electron distances in relation to the affected electron (being calculated for orbital distance)
Attractive Force (F_{1}) – Nucleus
The proton in the nucleus has an attractive force based on the number protons (Q_{1}). There is a force on a single electron, so Q_{2 }will always be one. This is the electric force. It is the same as the electric force equation in wave constant terms, but it is shown in terms of electron energy (E_{e}) and radius (r_{e}) for simplicity.
Repelling Force (F_{2}) – Nucleus
The proton in the nucleus also has a repelling force based on the number of protons (Q_{1}). Q_{2 }will be one again for the single electron being measured. This force is the same as the strong force, but now with a wave passing through two quarks/electrons. The only difference between the strong force equation and this orbital force equation is that it is now squared after passing through the two quarks/electrons (the strong force passes through one quark/electron before binding with the second). Beyond the standing wave structure of the proton it is a repelling force and diminishes at the cube of distance. The fine structure (α_{e}) is apparent in the equation because of this relationship to the strong force.
Repelling Force (F_{x}) – Electrons
The effect from other electrons in the atom are calculated using the same electric force equation as F_{1} but now the distance is different and the force is repulsive instead of attractive. The distance (r_{x}) is determined for each electron, requiring multiple equations to be built. It is expanded for each electron in an atom. For example, neon has ten electrons, so this equation is expanded for nine electrons (the tenth electron is the one being calculated).
Most electrons in an atom are going to be at different angles than the angle being calculated – the axis between the nucleus and the electron. Therefore, r_{x} is the following:
Electron Angles (θ)
Every angle is different and needs to be solved. Fortunately, because of tetrahedral alignment from the quarks/electrons in the proton, most angles are at 0° or 60° in relation to the proton. As orbitals become more complex, they are computed as an average of these angles. The angle is in relation to the proton because the sum of forces that is calculated in the equations is on the axis between the atom’s nucleus and the affected electron.
Electron angles in relation to the proton
The s orbitals have a common angle:
The p orbitals are a mix of these two angles*:
There are a few exceptions that have this angle**:
* The angles are averaged across the entire solution
** When sodium and magnesium begin building the 3s orbital, they have this angle
Calculations and Examples
A summary of calculations and examples using these equation rules are provided here. The Mathcad file is here. The remainder of the calculations and examples are detailed in the Atomic Orbitals paper.