# Quantum Leaps

## Background

An orbiting electron in an atom makes jumps between energy levels, known as quantum leaps or jumps.  The atom creates a photon when an electron moves to a lower energy level and absorbs a photon when an electron moves to a higher energy level or leaves the atom (ionization).  This is illustrated below. ## Explanation

There are two reasons for this quantized energy that will be explained by classical mechanics in this section, both of which are related to a proton’s spin. Protons have a similar spin as electrons.  In the revised pentaquark model of the proton, there are four tetrahedral quarks and an anti-quark in the middle. The tetrahedral quarks cancel spin (+ ½, + ½, – ½, – ½), leaving the anti-quark/positron in the center that is responsible for the spin.  It has value of +½ or -½. The anti-quark/positron reflects longitudinal waves that is responsible for the electric force (Coulomb force), but its spin also creates a second, transverse wave as illustrated below in red. Proton’s spin (anti-quark/positron spin in the center)

There are two directions for spin, otherwise referred to as spin-up or spin-down in modern physics.  Since quantum jumps are related to the arrangement of protons in the nucleus, which is affected by their tetrahedral structure, the following icons are used in this theory: Proton’s icons for spin-up and spin-down showing tetrahedral quark alignment

### Cause #1 – Quantum Leap

The first cause of the quantum leap is a wave passing through two or more spin-aligned protons.  This causes an increase in the orbital force, repelling the electron further, proportional to the square of the protons in alignment. Cause #1 of Quantum Leap: Two or more spin-aligned protons

Above, three examples are shown.  First, is a wave passing through only one proton.  It passes through two quarks in the tetrahedral vertices, creating the repelling orbital force to the 1s orbital.  In the second example, two protons are in alignment, but the tetrahedral vertices of these protons are not in alignment due to opposite spins (one spin up and one spin down proton).  It therefore repels to the 1s orbital.  However, in the last example, two same-spin protons now have a wave that passes through an alignment of quarks, increasing the orbital force.  This forces the electron to the 2s orbital, as further illustrated below. Tetrahedral quark alignment of two protons causing the 2s orbital

The repelling, axial force (F2), is now revisited with the updated particle count Q3 and Q4, which represents the number of protons in alignment which is two.  Reminder, Q2 is the particle count for the affected electron, which is only one.  These assumptions were used in the orbital distance equations and calculations. Repulsive force of two spin-aligned protons

This becomes the common cause of various orbitals with differing energies and is dependent on the structure and arrangement of protons in the atomic nucleus.  For example, hydrogen (one proton) has an electron at the 1s orbital in its ground state.  Helium (two protons) also has an electron at the 1s orbital because there are two protons with opposite spin.  Lithium (three protons) now has two same-spin protons, so one electron in the axial direction of these two protons will be at the 2s orbital.

### Cause #2 – Quantum Leap

A second cause of the quantum leap can be attributed to an energy gain in the spin of the proton.  Hydrogen, for example, has an electron at the 1s orbital (Bohr radius) at ground state.  This is shown below. Hydrogen electron at ground state (1s)

If it absorbs a photon (energy), then it affects the orbital force, which in turn affects the orbital distance.  For example, if the transverse wave of a photon causes the proton’s spin to rotate at 2 revolutions per cycle (longitudinal wavelength), then the repelling, orbital force is now 2x stronger for each tetrahedral quark in alignment. Hydrogen electron energized to 2s orbital when proton spins at 2 revolutions per wavelength

The reason for the quantum jumps in this case is due to resonance.  Energy gain in spin energy can cause an electron to change orbitals or ionize, but the spin energy must resonate with the longitudinal wave energy to continue spinning as explained in the photons page.

Spin is synchronized by longitudinal wave frequency (wave center off node is the cause for spin).  It is a resonance frequency and it needs to be an integer of a periodic function.  An analogy is a carousel.  The longitudinal wave frequency must match the spinning frequency of the carousel to effectively push the horse at the right time.  Otherwise, energy passes through and is not converted to spin energy. Resonance Example: longitudinal wave passes through carousel without pushing horse if not at the right frequency

Longitudinal wave amplitude can increase and cause faster spin, but it can only be 1x, 2x, 3x, etc in integers, because the rotation must match the periodic frequency of longitudinal waves. E.g. 2x wave amplitude is 2x rotational spin; but 1.5x wave amplitude is still only 1x rotational spin.  Thus, the electron would fall back to the 1s orbital, vibrating into position and creating a new photon with this transverse energy as it settles back to 1s. Resonance Example: longitudinal wave pushes horse, transferring longitudinal energy to transverse energy

This explanation of spin and resonance frequency can now be modeled mathematically.  If the energy is sufficient to reach two revolutions per longitudinal wavelength (2x), it can now continue to spin at that frequency.  The equation is shown below.  The fine structure (αe) is the wave amplitude change between quarks for the strong force, which is now modified to be 2x greater for each quark in axial alignment.  Note that it is the inverse of the fine structure constant that is the increase in wave amplitude or (αe/2). Repelling force equation for proton with 2x spin

Although the equations to arrive at the force are different, the net result is exactly the same force for both Cause #1 and Cause #2.  Note that Q3 and Q4 will always be equal.  It is the number of same-spin protons in alignment and given shorthand variable Q. ## Proof

Proof of the energy wave explanation for the quantum leap is:

Zeeman Effect

The second proof comes from experiments proven that demonstrate the Zeeman effect, where spectral lines are different under a magnetic field on an atom.  The increased spin on particles changes the resonance frequency, thus changing the orbital distance.  A constant magnetic force is a transverse wave that either increases or decreases the proton’s spin depending on the direction of proton’s spin relative to the magnetic spin.  This causes the electron to be further from the nucleus (when proton spin and magnetic spin are aligned) or closer to the nucleus (when proton and magnetic spin are opposite).  This is illustrated below. Proton under magnetic influence changes the orbital distance (spectral lines) known as the Zeeman Effect