S Orbital Shape

S Orbital

Each orbital has a unique and peculiar shape. The simplest shape is the spherical, s orbital, although there can be various orbitals of this shape in an atom due to quantum leaps of the electron. The explanation of the transition from 1s to 2s and other orbital jumps was described previously described in the quantum leap section.  One of the causes is the alignment of same-spin protons in the atomic nucleus.  Helium (Z=2) has two opposite spin protons, but lithium (Z=3) is the first atomic element with two protons with the same spin.  This causes one electron to be pushed out to the 2s subshell.  Beryllium has two pairs of protons now with the same spin, thus two electrons are pushed out to the 2s subshell.  The proposed nucleon structure for these elements are shown below.

The nucleon structure is also mapped to a VESPR molecular geometry class, because it is possible that molecules get their shapes as an extension of how the nucleus itself is structured. The first four elements may be planar (2D) in structure given the stability of 7Li and 9Be which are proposed in symmetric arrangement.  These proposed structures would match the known electron configurations in 1s and 2s and also the stability of the elements with these number of protons and neutrons.

 

Configuration of Protons and Neutrons for He, Li and Be

Configuration of Protons and Neutrons for He, Li and Be

 

Shape

As the proton spins on three axes, it creates a spherical shape.  H, He (Z=1, Z=2) have no protons with gluons that align (differing spins) and are confined to 1s.  Li, Be (Z=3, Z=4) begin to have protons that align spin and gluons; this greater axial force pushes electrons to 2s.

Shape of the s orbital

Shape of the s orbital

 

 

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