## Description

The electric force, or Coulomb’s Law (F=kqq/r^{2}), is the main force that governs the motion of particles. The other forces, including gravity, are derived from this force but differ in amplitude or wave form as shown in the *Forces* paper. It is the main force, meaning that each particle has a standard amplitude, and this amplitude increases proportional to the number of particles in each group (Q) that are measured at a distance (r). Force is based on wave amplitude difference due to constructive and destructive wave interference.

## Derivation

This derivation begins from a classical form of the electron’s energy, which itself is derived from the Longitudinal Energy Equation. It uses a dimensionless particle count (Q) which needs to be converted to charge (q) to be consistent with Coulomb’s law. Charge is based on each particle having an elementary charge (e). In other words, q=Qe.

In this derivation, the elementary charge (e) is found, in addition to Coulomb’s constant (k). Both of these constants are no longer necessary when using energy wave constants. Their values were found to match CODATA values in the Constants section, thus with this proof they can be substituted below. Further details can be found in the *Key Physics Equations and Experiments* paper.** **.

## Proof

**Coulomb’s constant: **From Eq. 2.4.7, Coulomb’s constant matches in numerical value. In wave theory, Coulombs (C) is measured in amplitude (meters). Coulomb’s constant is therefore a force, in terms of units.

**Elementary charge: **From Eq. 2.4.4, the elementary charge was accurately calculated on this site and in the *Fundamental Physical Constants* paper. It matches in numerical value. In wave theory, Coulombs (C) is measured in amplitude (meters).

The equations use wave constants explained here.

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