Coulomb’s Law (F=kqq/r2) is the main force that governs the motion of particles.  The other forces, including gravity, are derived from this force but differ in amplitude as shown in the Forces paper.  It is the main force, meaning that each particle has a standard amplitude, and this amplitude increases proportional to the number of particles in each group (Q) that are measured at a distance (r). Force is based on wave amplitude difference due to constructive and destructive wave interference.

Force - Energy over distance




This derivation begins with the Force Equation, which is derived from the Longitudinal Energy Equation.  This was originally proven to have its roots in the Energy Wave Equation. In short, all of the energy and force equations can be traced back to a simple energy wave equation.

The Force Equation contains a particle count (Q) which needs to be converted to charge (q) to be consistent with Coulomb’s law. Charge is based on each particle having an elementary charge (e). In other words, q=Qe.

In this derivation, the elementary charge (e) is found, in addition to Coulomb’s constant (k). Both of these constants are no longer necessary when using the Force Equation. Their values were found to match CODATA values in the Constants section, thus with this proof they can be substituted below.

References to Eqs. 1.10 and 1.5.2 come from the Key Physics Equations and Experiments paper. .




Coulomb’s constant (k) was accurately calculated on this site and in the Forces paper. It matches in numerical value.  In wave theory, Coulombs (C) is measured in amplitude (meters). Units in Eq. 2.4.11 resolve to kg m/s2.  Coulomb’s constant units are kg m3 / s2 C2.  When Coulomb charge is replaced by meters, this resolves correctly to kg m/s2.

Coulomb constant