Newton’s Second Law (F=ma) is based on a collection of particles experiencing an electromagnetic force when in close proximity.  Coulomb’s Law could be used for the force of particles, except that it is the force on the sum of particles measured in charge (q) as opposed to particle mass (m) that is used for Newton’s laws.  Thus, in modern physics, there is difficulty to reconcile Newton’s laws of motion and Coulomb’s law.

Like all forces, particle motion is a result of constructive or destructive wave interference that causes a change in amplitude. Particles move to minimize amplitude. This movement becomes the force. A greater difference in amplitude causes a greater force.

A particle experiencing acceleration and with initial velocity of zero - amplitude difference in energy wave theory




The derivation begins with the complete form of the Longitudinal Energy Equation for particle energy in motion. The first steps were already proven with the energy-momentum relationship (E=pc) and are not duplicated here. Visit the E=pc page for the first steps of the derivation.  Further details can be found in the Key Physics Equations and Experiments paper. .

F=ma derived




Acceleration (a) values were calculated in the Forces section for various planet surface gravity/acceleration values, including Earth which was found to be 9.81 m / s2.  The calculations require an explanation for obtaining particle count (Q) based on estimated nucleons for planets, not covered here.