What is Magnetism?

Background

Magnetism is a property of atoms that produces a field which causes a force that attracts or repels other objects. From Live Science, “All materials experience magnetism, some more strongly than others. Permanent magnets, made from materials such as iron, experience the strongest effects, known as ferromagnetism. With rare exception, this is the only form of magnetism strong enough to be felt by people.”

Objects like a magnet produce this force even at rest. Ferromagnetic objects, like iron, tend to have atom configurations that have more electrons that spin in a given direction compared to the opposite direction. Magnetism is therefore associated with the electron’s spin.

When a current is induced with an electric field, it forces electrons into motion, changing the magnetic field. The electric fields and magnetic fields are related – electromagnetism. Phones, as an example, utilize electromagnetism to reproduce sound. This is just one of countless applications that utilize electromagnetism.

magnet

Credit: Milan B. Shutterstock

 


 

Explanation

Magnetism is a transverse wave caused by the spin of a particle such as an electron or proton. The spin of the electron was described by wave centers positioning to be at the node of a standing wave. The electron is a stable particle because most of the wave centers are located at wavelengths, positioned at these nodes. A tetrahedron is proposed as the geometric formation of wave centers for the electron. In this configuration, at least one wave center is always off node, and it will position to be on the node (see red ball in the illustration below). Once it reaches the node, it forces another wave center off node, and this constant repositioning causes the spin of the electron. It creates a transverse wave in an axial direction as it spins (see red lines).  The entire particle spins, so it creates these waves in different directions as it spins. Waves have properties of constructive and destructive interference, therefore depending on the rotation of spin, it may add or subtract wave amplitude as it interferes with other particles. This creates the magnetic lines as shown below.

magnetic fields

 

Particles move to minimize wave amplitude, so in most atoms, both longitudinal wave amplitude and transverse wave amplitude are minimized. This is why protons attract electrons to be stable and why electrons of opposite spin are required for each orbital. In cases where there are more electrons that have the same spin than opposite spin (e.g. iron), the wave amplitude will be constructive and cause the force of magnetism, even if the electrons are at rest. This is ferromagnetism. The details of the magnetic force, its equation and calculations are provided here.

 

Particles are Waves – The Laws are Identical

The relationship between particles and fields is discussed in this section as it is important to explaining electromagnetism. In quantum mechanics, a particle can be both a particle and a wave, a confusing principle referred to as wave-particle duality. It is both. A particle consists of wave centers, which is an entity that is measurable and has a known location, but these wave centers reflect waves – both longitudinal and transverse waves. A particle consists of standing wave energy from the reflection of longitudinal waves. The electric force is the traveling, longitudinal waves that are reflected beyond the particle’s radius and the magnetic force is the traveling, transverse waves created from the particle’s spin.

Particles as Waves
The illustration above is intended to be used as icons for diagrams on this page that describe a particle at rest and also in motion, and how it affects both longitudinal and transverse waves. One of the most interesting discoveries when working on energy wave theory was the relationship between the fields created by waves and the energy and forces of a particle. Energy is always conserved. When the energy of a field is compared to the energy of the electron particle, at the electron’s classical radius, the following are found to be equal:

Field vs Particle Law

 

Electric Field and Magnetic Field

An electron at rest is pictured on the left in the following diagram. Typically, particles are thought of as an entity in a defined volume. While this is the case for a particle, it’s true only for its standing waves. It continues to have traveling waves beyond the particle’s perimeter (electron’s classical radius). This is the picture on the right in the diagram. The out-waves of the electron are both longitudinal (electric force) and transverse (magnetic force).  The magnetic moment of the electron was derived in the Bohr magneton and the gain in transverse energy was shown to be equal to the longitudinal energy loss that becomes gravity.

A particle’s energy is calculated with the mass-energy equivalence, E=mc2. Beyond the particle’s radius, it is still energy, but it is now in the form of traveling waves. This energy, at a measurable distance, is the electric force. The Coulomb energy is calculated as E=mc* (re/r), where re is the electron’s radius. Because force is energy over distance, the Coulomb force (electric force) is F=mc* (re/r2). This provides the same calculations as the Coulomb equation. It shows that the longitudinal wave energy for particles can be measured at any point in space (a field).

Electric and Magnetic Force - Particles vs Wave View

 

Induction – Electron in Motion (Longitudinal Wave)

When an electron accelerates, its force can be calculated by its mass times acceleration, known as Newton’s second law of motion (F=ma). The electron’s longitudinal amplitude changes as a result of acceleration, as shown in the next illustration. When an electron increases amplitude in one direction, it may force another electron into motion based on the rule of minimizing wave amplitude. Electrons do not need to actually touch to cause the force and move. Matter, which is made of particles, is the same way. Two cars colliding in a crash do not physically have particles touch. The electric force causes wave amplitude to increase and it forces particles away.

Induction can be shown to be equal to Newton’s second law of motion when considering the energy of a particle measured at the electron’s radius. The comparison of Newton’s law of motion is compared to the New Induction equation from Robert Distinti, as this equation allows the calculation of a force for a point particle (electron). The results compare Newton’s second law to Distinti’s New Induction and then to the energy wave constant form of the equation. All three are equal, validating Distinti’s work on induction and magnetism. The details of Newton’s laws to Distinti’s laws of induction and magnetism are found here.

Induction - Particle vs Wave View

 

Electromagnetism – Electron in Motion (Transverse Wave)

Similar to induction, a particle’s spin energy is found to be equal to the wave energy that it produces in the form of transverse (magnetic) waves. When an electron is in motion, such as an induced current, the wave centers will spin faster as it approaches in-waves at a higher frequency. In a particle, this force can be calculated as the centripetal force. Once again, the radius is the electron’s classical radius where energy is equal. When the mass and radius of the electron are inserted into the centripetal force equation, it can be proven to be the force of electromagnetism. Robert Distinti’s New Magnetism equation is used for this comparison because of the ability to use the point particle form to compare. The energy when measured at the electron’s classical radius for the centripetal force equation, Distinti’s New Magnetism and the energy wave constant form of the equation are all identical. The results are to be published shortly and a reference will be added to this section.

Electromagnetism - Particle vs Wave View

 

Electromagnetism is a result of a current as electrons respond to an increase in longitudinal waves that cause their motion. The increased velocity of the electron then causes a faster spin, creating a stronger transverse wave amplitude. In most atoms, the heavy proton will remain at rest. It maintains its spin and transverse wave amplitude that once cancelled the electron’s transverse wave amplitude. But now in motion, the electron’s wave amplitude increases such that it no longer cancels with the proton. The faster the motion of the electron, the faster the spin, the larger the transverse amplitude difference. This is the relationship between the electric force and magnetic force in what is known as electromagnetism.

Magnetism

 


 

Video – What is Magnetism?

The What is Magnetism video below provides an explanation of the magnetic forces and how the laws of electromagnetism relate to the laws of matter.