## What is a force?

There are natural forces all around us that push or pull objects. In simple terms, a force is any influence that causes an object to undergo a change in speed, a change in direction, or a change in shape. The most commonly recognized force is gravity. Everyone recognizes gravity because we all feel the effect. Electromagnetism is another common force, seen in magnets. A lesser known force is the strongest of them all – the strong force that holds together the nucleus of the atom.

There is no denying that gravity, electromagnetism and the strong force exist or their ability to have a force on an object and cause them to undergo speed, direction or change. In fact, the Standard Model even has a fourth force, known as the weak force, for its ability to change protons into neutrons and vice versa. Despite the appearance that there are four fundamental forces, there is actually only one.

## What causes these forces?

The Energy Wave Laws state that particles seek to minimize amplitude. Due to constructive and destructive wave interference, amplitude patterns can change between particles based on their amplitude, distance and phase (location on the wave). Fundamentally, this is the cause of forces and particle movement – **a difference in amplitude and the resulting movement of a particle to minimize its displacement.**

There is one fundamental energy wave but it will change in wave forms. When it reflects off a particle core, in-waves and out-waves combine to create a standing wave. Beyond the particle’s radius, it transitions back to a traveling, longitudinal wave. When it causes a particle to spin, a transverse wave is created. Energy is always conserved and particles will always move to minimize wave amplitude – the cause of forces.

**Electric Force**

The electric force is the dominant force where particles are responding to constructive and destructive **longitudinal** **wave** amplitude from other particles. *Note, despite the illustration of a sinusoidal wave, which can be easily pictured in the figure below, the longitudinal wave is spherical in three dimensions.*

**Gravitational Force**

When a longitudinal wave reflects off a particle, it loses some of this longitudinal wave energy (amplitude) due to particle spin. Energy is always conserved, so some of this energy is transferred to a transverse wave which will be shown to be magnetism. However, the loss of this **longitudinal wave** amplitude becomes the force of gravity as a result of a shading effect between particles. The wave amplitude loss is very slight, thus this loss is only detected when the dominant electric force cancels out – such as atoms where electrons and protons cancel wave interference.

**Magnetic Force**

As the longitudinal wave causes the particle to spin, the longitudinal energy loss is converted to transverse energy. This is an axial, **transverse wave** and is pictured in red in the diagram below. The constantly changing spin of the particle changes the direction of the axial, transverse wave such that it becomes a field. The energy loss from gravity is derived in wave constant terms and is then found to derive the magnetic moment of the electron (Bohr magneton), thus linking gravity and magnetism together through the principle of conservation of energy.

**Strong Force**

When two particles are within a standing wave radius, they form a strong bond when they are placed at nodes in the standing waves. Similar to the conversion of energy from gravity to magnetism, this energy is transferred from longitudinal to **transverse wave** form. The tight proximity within standing waves requires greater longitudinal wave energy to spin the particles, resulting in a stronger axial, transverse wave. This is the calculated to be the strong force. Furthermore, the same wave energy can be modeled as a repelling force beyond the standing waves and causes the orbit of the electron.

In addition, a general force equation can derive the laws of acceleration and velocity and are included in this section, and the derivations of Newton’s second law can be found in the section on F=ma.

*The weak force has been intentionally left from this list as it is not a force that can cause an object to change speed or direction but is explained in the section on Weak Force.*

## Where is the proof?

Energy wave equations for forces, acceleration and velocity were derived from the Longitudinal Energy Equation. The forces vary based on the wave type and amplitude. The following offers multiple calculations and derivations in support of this unified definition of forces:

**Electric Force**- Derived the electron’s mass and energy from the same longitudinal wave that becomes the electric force when it reflects from a particle. The same wave for the electric force is responsible for particle energy and mass.
- Derived the Coulomb’s Law (electric force) and Coulomb’s constant from the unified Force Equation.
- Calculations of electromagnetic forces using the Force Equation (single/multiple charges over varying distances)

**Gravity**- Derived Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation and the Gravitational constant from the unified Force Equation.
- Derived the gravity coupling constant (α
_{Ge}), which is the ratio of gravitational force vs electric force, using wave constants. - Calculations of gravitational forces (particles and large bodies over varying distances)

**Magnetism**- Using the same amplitude loss for gravity for the electron (α
_{Ge}), the Bohr magneton, which is the magnetic moment of the electron, is derived based on the conservation of energy from longitudinal waves to transverse waves. This relation between magnetism and gravity is explained in detail in this section. - Explained the magnetic field and inverse cube of distance rule for magnetism.

- Using the same amplitude loss for gravity for the electron (α
**Strong Force**- Calculated the strong force as a transverse, axial wave at wavelength nodes (at 0.85 and 1.13 femtometers) matching strong and also nuclear forces.

**Acceleration**- Derived Newton’s Second Law using the Force Equation and Acceleration Equation.
- Calculated 11 planet surface gravities using the Acceleration Equation as proof of the equation.

**Velocity**- Calculated the velocities of falling bodies on various planets (at varying times)

**Video Summary**