## What is a Force?

There are natural forces all around us that push or pull objects. In simple terms, **a force is any influence that causes an object to undergo a change in speed, a change in direction, or a change in shape.** The most commonly recognized force is gravity. Everyone recognizes gravity because we all feel the effect. Electromagnetism is another common force, split into two components that we see in electricity and magnets. A lesser known force is the strongest of them all but we don’t see it due to its size – the strong force binds the nucleus of an atom.

There is no denying that gravity, electromagnetism and the strong force exist or their ability to have a force on an object and cause a change in speed or direction. In fact, the Standard Model even has a fourth force, known as the weak force, for its ability to change protons into neutrons and vice versa. The four fundamental forces are described in the illustration below.

**The Four Forces of the Standard Model**

## The Cause of Forces

In **energy wave theory**, particles seek to minimize amplitude. More specifically, it is wave centers that form particles that minimize amplitude as Law #4 in the Theory Laws. This is the law that governs the formation of particles – as wave centers position at standing wave nodes to form particles. This is the law that creates the spin of the particles – as wave centers in a particle adjust to be at the node. And this is the law that governs how two or more particles interact with each other – forces.

**Two or More Particles and Their Wave Interaction – The Cause of Forces**

There is one fundamental energy wave but it will change in wave forms. When it reflects off a particle core, in-waves and out-waves combine to create a standing wave. Beyond the particle’s radius, it transitions back to a traveling, longitudinal wave. When it causes a particle to spin, a transverse wave is created. Due to constructive and destructive wave interference, amplitude patterns change between particles based on their initial amplitude, distance and phase (location on the wave). Particles will always move to minimize its displacement (wave amplitude). **This is the cause of all forces.**

**Wave Interference – Constructive (Repel) – Destructive (Attract)
**

Wave centers within particles exist at standing wave nodes. Since there are only two possible nodes in a wavelength this causes matter and antimatter, such as an electron and a positron. One is at one node, the other is at the opposite node, 180 degrees out of phase on the wave. When these particles experience wave interference, the following are the possibilities:

**Electron + Electron:**Constructive wave interference. Amplitude increases between particles. Particles repel.**Positron + Positron:**Constructive wave interference. Amplitude increases between particles. Particles repel.**Electron + Positron:**Destructive wave interference. Amplitude decreases between particles. Particles attract.

The fundamental force is the electric force, based on the constructive and destructive wave interference of traveling, longitudinal waves. The remaining forces are a modification of this force as waves change in form or amplitude. They can all be derived from this force and use energy wave constants in their equation, eliminating the need for proportionality constants like the gravitational constant (G) or Coulomb’s constant (k).

There are four forces that are explained in summary below. Each force has a dedicated page explaining the details of the cause of the force and how to calculate it using a wave equation. The four forces summarized below are: 1) electric force, 2) magnetic force, 3) gravitational force and 4) strong force. The weak force is not a change in wave type or form, but instead is a combination of the electric force and strong force. In this theory, the electromagnetic force is broken into its two parts (electric and magnetic) for a total of four forces. They are truly different wave forms (longitudinal versus transverse). Finally, the strong force is proposed to be responsible for a new force that keeps the electron in orbit. Similar to the electric force which has attractive and repelling properties, the strong force can be modeled as a repelling force beyond the standing wave structure of a nucleon. This is detailed in the strong force page and again in atomic orbitals.

**Electric Force**

The electric force is the dominant force where particles are responding to constructive and destructive **longitudinal**** wave** amplitude from other particles. *Note, despite the illustration of a sinusoidal wave, which can be easily pictured in the figure below, the longitudinal wave is spherical in three dimensions.*

**Gravitational Force**

When a longitudinal wave reflects off a particle, it loses some of this longitudinal wave energy (amplitude) due to particle spin. Energy is always conserved, so some of this energy is transferred to a transverse wave which will be shown to be magnetism. However, the loss of this **longitudinal wave** amplitude becomes the force of gravity as a result of a shading effect between particles. The wave amplitude loss is very slight, thus this loss is only detected when the dominant electric force cancels out – such as atoms where electrons and protons cancel wave interference.

**Magnetic Force**

As the longitudinal wave causes the particle to spin, the longitudinal energy loss is converted to transverse energy. This is an axial, **transverse wave** and is pictured in red in the diagram below. The constantly changing spin of the particle changes the direction of the axial, transverse wave such that it becomes a field. The energy loss from gravity is derived in wave constant terms and is then found to derive the magnetic moment of the electron (Bohr magneton), thus linking gravity and magnetism together through the principle of conservation of energy.

**Strong Force**

When two particles are within a standing wave radius, they form a strong bond when they are placed at nodes in the standing waves. Similar to the conversion of energy from gravity to magnetism, this energy is transferred from longitudinal to **transverse wave** form. The tight proximity within standing waves requires greater longitudinal wave energy to spin the particles, resulting in a stronger axial, transverse wave. This is the calculated to be the strong force. Furthermore, the same wave energy can be modeled as a repelling force beyond the standing waves and causes the orbit of the electron.

*The weak force has been intentionally left from this list as it is not a force that can cause an object to change speed or direction but is explained in the section on Weak Force.*

## Forces Summary

A summary of the forces and the simple version of the equation using the electron’s energy, mass and radius (E_{e}, m_{e} and r_{e}) is found below. The forces in the following sections are all derived from these properties using wave constants.

In addition, a general force equation can derive the laws of acceleration and velocity and are included in this section. The derivations of Newton’s second law can be found in the section on F=ma.

## Where is the Proof?

Energy wave equations for forces, acceleration and velocity were derived from the Longitudinal Energy Equation. The forces vary based on the wave type and amplitude. The following offers multiple calculations and derivations in support of this unified definition of forces:

**Electric Force**- Derived the electron’s mass and energy.
- Derived Coulomb’s Law (electric force) and Coulomb’s constant.
- Calculations of electric forces (single/multiple charges over varying distances)

**Magnetic Force**- Derived the Bohr magneton, which is the magnetic moment of the electron.
- Explained the magnetic field and inverse cube of distance rule for magnetism.
- Calculations of magnetic forces for electrons in a current (electrons over varying distances and velocities).

**Gravitational Force**- Derived Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation and the Gravitational constant.
- Derived the gravity coupling constant (α
_{Ge}), which is the ratio of gravitational force vs electric force, using wave constants. - Calculations of gravitational forces (particles and large bodies over varying distances).

**Strong Force**- Calculated the strong force at wavelength nodes (0.85 and 1.13 femtometers) matching the strong and nuclear forces.
- Calculated an orbital force as a remnant of the strong force, explaining the electron’s orbit. Used it to calculate orbital distances.

**Particle Motion**(Acceleration and Velocity)- Derived Newton’s Second Law.
- Calculated 11 planet surface gravities (acceleration).
- Calculated the velocities of falling bodies on various planets (at varying times).