Forces

What is a Force?

There are natural forces all around us that cause the motion of particles and the objects that they create. In simple terms, a force is any influence that causes an object to undergo a change in speed, a change in direction, or a change in shape. The most commonly recognized force is gravity. Everyone recognizes gravity because we all feel its effects.  Electromagnetism is another common force that we can see at macroscopic levels, split into two components that we see in electricity and magnets. And there are two other forces which exist at a microscopic level within an atom. The strong force binds quarks to make nucleons like the proton, and it also binds these nucleons together to form the nucleus of atoms.  The weak force is known for its ability to change nucleons (e.g. change a neutron into a proton and vice versa). The four fundamental forces, according to the Standard Model, are described in the illustration below.

Four forces

Credit: Norman Herr (CSUN)

The Four Forces of the Standard Model

Questions:

  • Why does the strong force only act at short ranges?
  • Why is gravity so weak that its effects are only seen in large bodies?
  • How can forces ever be unified if some equations use mass and others use charge as variables?
 
 

 

Explanation

In energy wave theory, the fundamental cause of motion is for particles to move to minimize amplitude. More specifically, it is wave centers that minimize wave amplitude as explained in Law #4 of the theory laws, which leads to not only particle formation, but to all forces acting upon such particles.  Wave centers move to the nodes of standing waves for minimal amplitude to create particles, and the particles that they create move to minimize wave amplitude in traveling waves.

Standing and Traveling Waves and Motion

Wave centers (black) – stable; (yellow) – move to minimize amplitude

  • Standing Waves – at short ranges due to declining amplitude where it transitions to traveling waves.
    • Particle creation (e.g. particles and antiparticles at opposite nodes)
    • Composite particle creation (e.g. nucleons – strong force)
    • Nuclei creation (e.g. atomic elements – nuclear force)
  • Traveling Waves – at long ranges, continuing to decrease in amplitude from the source, where amplitude may change based on interference with other waves.
    • Longitudinal waves – electric force, gravity
    • Transverse waves – magnetic force

 

Particle Motion to Minimize Amplitude

Energy travels in waves but it will change in wave forms and may be constructive or destructive in wave amplitude when it interferes with other waves.  The primary wave types that experience this traveling wave interference are longitudinal and transverse waves that are seen as the electric and magnetic fields.  The force of gravity is a result of lower longitudinal wave amplitude (electric) between particles as a result of a conservation of energy from spin. The strong force is a result of particles spinning at standing wave nodes. But in all cases, the motion of a particle is always to move to minimize its displacement (wave amplitude). This is the cause of all forces. 

electric magnetic strong gravity animated forces

Forces Summary 

The four forces highlighted above are explained in summary below. Each force has a dedicated page explaining the details of the cause of the force and how to calculate it using a wave equation. 

Electric Force

The electric force is the dominant force where particles are responding to constructive and destructive longitudinal wave amplitude from other particles.  Note, despite the illustration of a sinusoidal wave, which can be easily pictured in the figure below, the longitudinal wave is spherical in three dimensions.

electric force summary

Gravitational Force

When a longitudinal wave reflects off a particle, it loses some of this longitudinal wave energy (amplitude) due to particle spin.  Energy is always conserved, so some of this energy is transferred to a transverse wave which will be shown to be magnetism.  However, the loss of this longitudinal wave amplitude becomes the force of gravity as a result of a shading effect between particles.  The wave amplitude loss is very slight, thus this loss is only detected when the dominant electric force cancels out – such as atoms where electrons and protons cancel wave interference.

gravitational force summary

Magnetic Force

As the longitudinal wave causes the particle to spin, the longitudinal energy loss is converted to transverse energy. This is an axial, transverse wave and is pictured in red in the diagram below. The constantly changing spin of the particle changes the direction of the axial, transverse wave such that it becomes a field. The energy loss from gravity is derived in wave constant terms and is then found to derive the magnetic moment of the electron (Bohr magneton), thus linking gravity and magnetism together through the principle of conservation of energy.

magnetic force summary

Strong Force

When two particles are within a standing wave radius, they form a strong bond when they are placed at nodes in the standing waves.  Similar to the conversion of energy from gravity to magnetism, this energy is transferred from longitudinal to transverse wave form.  The tight proximity within standing waves requires greater longitudinal wave energy to spin the particles, resulting in a stronger axial, transverse wave.  This is calculated to be the strong force.  Furthermore, the same wave energy can be modeled as a repelling force beyond the standing waves and causes the orbit of the electron.

strong force summary

Electromagnetism is split into its respective parts for the electric force and magnetic forceGravity is an electric force with reduced amplitude and the strong force is proposed to be responsible for a new force that keeps the electron in orbit. Similar to the electric force which has attractive and repelling properties, the strong force can be modeled as a repelling force beyond the standing wave structure of a nucleon. This is detailed in the strong force page and again in atomic orbitals. The weak force is not included here but is explained on its own page. 

Cause of Constructive and Destructive Waves

Wave centers within particles exist at standing wave nodes. Since there are only two possible nodes in a wavelength, this causes matter and antimatter, such as an electron and a positron. One is at one node, the other is at the opposite node, 180 degrees out of phase on the wave. When these particles experience wave interference, the following are the possibilities:

  • Electron + Electron: Constructive wave interference. Amplitude increases between particles. Particles repel.
  • Positron + Positron: Constructive wave interference. Amplitude increases between particles. Particles repel.
  • Electron + Positron: Destructive wave interference. Amplitude decreases between particles. Particles attract.
 

Unifying Force Equations

Mass (m) and charge (q) were developed by early physicists to calculate forces such as gravity and electricity. However, because they use variables with different units, it is difficult to unify equations that describe forces for large objects (e.g. Newton’s laws of motion) and forces for particles (e.g. Coulomb’s law). The way to reconcile these equations is with their lowest common denominator – they are based on a numerical count of particles.  In energy wave theory, the variables to unify force equations are based on the count of particles in a group (a dimensionless variable Q), affecting a second group of particles at a distance (r) with wave interference, as explained in the unification of forces.

Where is the Proof?

Energy wave equations for forces and particle motion were derived from the Longitudinal Energy Equation. These forces vary based on wave type and amplitude. The following offers multiple calculations and derivations in support of this unified definition of forces:

 

Video Summary