Equation – Forces


Force Equation

Forces are a result of particles moving to minimize wave amplitude. The fundamental force equation in wave constant form is a force equation for the electric force. The remaining forces are built from this equation based on a change in wave type or amplitude.

Force Equation

Electric Force Equation


  • Q1 and Q2: A dimensionless count of two particle groups separated at distance
  • r: The distance separating the particle groups (in meters)
  • Other Constants: The remaining constants in the equation are found here.


Other Forces

The remaining equations for forces are derived from the Force Equation. The following are explained in detail on their respective pages:

The weak force is explained but does not have an equation. The equations for acceleration and velocity are found in the Force and Motion page.



Explanation of Equation

The equation for forces initially begins with the Energy Wave Equation:

Fundamental Energy equation

Energy Wave Equation


When wave amplitude is constant on all sides of a particle, there is no force as illustrated in the top half of the diagram below. When there is an amplitude difference, there is a force. The particle moves to minimize amplitude as illustrated in the second half of the diagram.

Force and No Force based on wave amplitude


The difference in traveling wave amplitude depends on the distance (r) that it is measured. As wave centers reflect longitudinal waves, they decrease in amplitude. It transforms from standing waves to traveling waves at the particle’s radius. Since the fundamental force is the electric force, the energy of the electron (Ee) and the radius of the electron (re) is used for simple terms to understand energy. This is the “Coulomb energy” which can be measured at any distance (r) from a single electron:

Energy Traveling Waves at Distance


The energy equation is derived to derive forces is based on two groups of particles (Q1 and Q2) separated at a distance r.

Collection of particles


The energy from the previous equation that is being measured for a group of particles (Q1) is:

Energy at Distance Multiple Particles


Finally, force is energy over distance. The effect of the second group of particles (Q2) is added to the equation. It is now an equation representing a force. When the wave constants for the electron’s energy and radius are substituted into the following, it becomes the fundamental force equation (electric force):


The Fundamental Force Equation

This force equation is naturally Coulomb’s Law, the electric force, but it is also derived to other forces based on a change in wave amplitude or wave form. The equation is considered in energy wave theory to be the fundamental force because its longitudinal waves are responsible for 1) a particle’s energy, 2) the electric force that binds particles, and 3) the laws of motion that govern large objects consisting of particles.  The equation can be linked to Coulomb’s Law and Newton’s Second Law by mathematically derivation.

Force Equation Coulombs Law and Newtons Second Law


Calculations and Examples

A summary of calculations and some examples using the equations are provided here. The remainder of the calculations and examples are detailed in the Forces paper.