## Background

Gravity has long been attempted to be explained, but for years, it has been difficult to describe the mechanism that makes it work. We all know what gravity does – drop a bowling ball on your foot and you surely know the answer. But what made it drop in the first place?

In 1687, Isaac Newton stated the gravitational force to be proportional to the product of two masses, and this is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Newton developed the equation to model gravity but had no explanation for the cause of gravity. In 1915, Albert Einstein refined gravity with General Relativity and described gravity as the warping of spacetime. Many years after Einstein, the Standard Model of particle physics evolved and theorized that the graviton particle is what interacts between two bodies (made of particles) to determine the force of attraction. Although the equations work, there is no evidence of the graviton despite experiments to find it and explain why gravity is so weak compared to other forces. Furthermore, gravity has not been united with other forces.

**Explanation**

Gravity is a result of traveling, longitudinal waves that are absorbed by particles. Particles consist of standing waves of energy, made of in-waves that convert to out-waves. However, the out-wave amplitude is slightly less than in-wave amplitude after energy is absorbed and transferred to transverse wave energy for the spin of a particle (consistent with conservation of energy laws in physics). *In the absence of other forces*, two particles would be attractive due to the rule that particles move to minimize wave amplitude, which is now lower between two particles.

Other forces do have to be considered, however, and the amplitude loss is very, very small compared to constructive and destructive longitudinal wave interference that is the cause of the electric force. Consider these examples of gravity versus the electric force.

**Electron + Electron**– Electric force dominates due to constructive wave interference and the attractive force of gravity is*indistinguishable*.**Electron + Hydrogen Atom**– The hydrogen atom is electrically neutral due to destructive wave interference. An electron has a very small attraction on the order of 10^{-37}, which is still*indistinguishable*from the electric force.**Electron + Large Body**– A large body contains many atoms that are electrically neutral due to destructive wave interference. The cumulative effect of amplitude loss from all particle spin*now makes gravity distinguishable*from the electric force when there are many, many atoms (e.g. it takes an accumulated amplitude loss of 10^{37}hydrogen atoms to equal the force of just a single electron’s electrical force).

### Large Bodies

The electric force dominates wave center movement until the summation of amplitude loss in a collection of particles, e.g. large bodies like planets, is greater than the effect of the electric force. Most large bodies consist of atoms that are neutral (protons and electrons), such that there is negligible constructive or destructive wave interference on bodies consisting of atoms. In this case, gravity is the force that controls large bodies due to the reduction of amplitude. The larger the number of particles in a body, the greater its amplitude loss. Amplitude is also reduced by the square of the distance naturally, so distance also affects the force of attraction.

**A large body with a significant loss of longitudinal out-wave energy
**

**Shading Effect**

Gravity isn’t typically measured by a single particle. It’s the effect of two bodies with mass, producing a shading effect of the electric force. The collective amplitude of all the particles in a body have been reduced as it passes through a body and is shaded between the two bodies. In the illustration below, longitudinal wave energy on Body A is partially absorbed, leading to less wave amplitude on Body B from its left side. Likewise, longitudinal wave energy on Body B is partially absorbed, leading to less wave amplitude on Body A from its right side. This is a shading effect. And when the net force is greater on one side of an object, it will move in the direction of the force (amplitude is higher on one side and it seeks the direction of minimal amplitude). Like all of the forces, particles are moving to minimize their amplitude. Thus, Body A and Body B will be attracted to each other. Gravitation is not a “pull” force. It’s actually a “push” force. It’s the result of shading and unequal pressure.

This is gravity. Traveling, longitudinal waves that convert some of their energy (amplitude) to magnetic spin as it passes through a body. Two bodies produce a shading effect and particles then move to minimize their amplitude.

### Conservation of Energy

In the section on the magnetic force and in further detail in the *Forces* paper, the electron’s spin was found to derive the Bohr magneton, thereby associating the increased spin energy to the decreased longitudinal energy associated with gravity. It is a conservation of energy from longitudinal wave form to transverse wave form. In other words, as the magnetic wave is created, it reduces energy from the electric wave causing gravity. The reduction is very small for single particles. The ratio of the electric force amplitude compared to the amplitude loss experienced by gravity is 2.4 x 10^{-43} for the electron and 8.1 x 10^{-37} for the proton.

**A single particle with a very slight loss of longitudinal out-wave energy**

**Equation**

In simple terms using two groups (Q) of particles separated at distance (r), the properties of the electron’s energy and radius (E_{e }and r_{e}), and the force of gravity for a proton (⍺_{Gp}) is shown below. It is simply the electric force with an amplitude adjustment for the loss of energy in the proton’s out-wave.

**Gravitational Force**

Using classical constants | Using energy wave constants |

The derivation of the gravitational force requires multiple steps to arrive at the gravitational loss of the proton (⍺_{Gp}), instead of the electron. For the detailed steps, refer to the *Forces* paper.

**Large Body Particle Count**

To use the gravitational force equation, the number of particles must be estimated for large bodies such that the total amplitude loss for the body can be obtained. The variable Q is used to estimate nucleons, as an atom contains protons and neutrons in the nucleus (nucleons) and electrons in orbit. The mass of the proton and neutron are much greater than the electron, so nucleons are used in the estimate. Each proton is normally paired with an electron anyway, and since the neutron is roughly the mass of a proton plus an electron, using a nucleon count with the amplitude loss of the proton turns out to be a very good estimate of particle counts and amplitude loss in a large body.

Thus, to estimate the number of nucleons (Q) in a group, or large body, the following is equation is used. The mass of the group is divided by the mass of the proton. For example the mass of the Sun is divided by the proton mass. When the nucleon estimates for each large body is used in the Gravitational Force equation, the results are quite accurate despite a method that is used to approximate the number of particles. The results are seen in the gravitational calculations.

**Particle Count (Q) for Large Bodies**

**Proof**

Proof of the energy wave explanation for the gravitational force is the derivations and calculations of:

- Derived Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
- Derived the gravitational constant (G)
- Calculations of gravitational forces –
*see example calculation below*

### Earth and Moon Gravitational Force – Calculation

In this example, the force of gravity of the Earth on the Moon is calculated. To do this, the** Particle Count for Large Bodies equation** (see above) is used to estimate the number of nucleon particles (Q) that will be used in the Gravitational Force equation. First, the estimated nucleons are calculated for both the Earth and the Moon. The mass of each is inserted into the numerator and the mass of the proton is inserted into the denominator to solve for nucleon count. The calculation is shown with the gravitational force equation in **two formats** (classical constants and wave constants).

- m
_{earth}= 5.972 x 10^{24}kg - m
_{moon}= 7.34767 x 10^{22}kg - m
_{p}= 1.67262 x 10^{-27}kg

**Result: **Earth Nucleon Count (Q_{earth}): 3.570E51 particles

**Result: **Moon Nucleon Count (Q_{moon}): 4.393E49 particles** **

**Variables:**

- Q
_{1}= Q_{earth}= 3.570E51^{ }(*from above*) - Q
_{2}= Q_{moon}= 4.393E49^{ }(*from above*) - r = 3.85E8 m
*(distance between Earth and Moon*)

**Equation #1: **Gravitational Force Equation – Classical Format

**Result: **1.975E20 newtons (kg m/s^{2})

**Equation #2: **Gravitational Force Equation – Wave Format

**Result: **1.976E20 newtons (kg m/s^{2})

**Comments:** There is no difference to an accuracy level of 0.00% from Newton’s law of universal gravitation for either format.

A summary of various gravity calculations is found on this site; more detailed calculations with instructions to reproduce these calculations can be found in the *Forces* paper.