## Background

Gravity has long been attempted to be explained, but for years, it has been difficult to describe the mechanism that makes it work. We all know what gravity does – drop a bowling ball on your foot and you surely know the answer. But what made it drop in the first place?

In 1687, Isaac Newton stated the gravitational force to be proportional to the product of two masses, and this is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Newton developed the equation to model gravity but had no explanation for the cause of gravity. In 1915, Albert Einstein refined gravity with General Relativity and described gravity as the warping of spacetime. Many years after Einstein, the Standard Model of particle physics evolved and a theorized graviton particle is what interacts between two bodies (made of particles) to determine the force of attraction. The equations work, but the explanations provided may be wrong – according to energy wave theory.

**Explanation**

Gravity is a result of traveling, longitudinal waves that are absorbed by particles. Particles consist of standing waves of energy, made of in-waves that convert to out-waves. However, the out-wave amplitude is slightly less than in-wave amplitude after energy is absorbed and transferred to transverse wave energy (consistent with conservation of energy laws in physics). *If a particle is affected by the longitudinal wave, to vibrate, to spin or be pushed in a direction, it is converting longitudinal wave energy to a kinetic form.*

This is hardly noticeable until a body, which contains many particles, absorbs this longitudinal energy. On a single body, the affect is inward only, such as the following.

However, two large bodies have a shading effect. The collective amplitude of all the particles in a body have been reduced as it passes through a body and is shaded between the two bodies. In the illustration below, longitudinal wave energy on Body A is partially absorbed, leading to less wave amplitude on Body B from its left side. Likewise, longitudinal wave energy on Body B is partially absorbed, leading to less wave amplitude on Body A from its right side. This is a shading effect. And when the net force is greater on one side of an object, it will move in the direction of the force (amplitude is higher on one side and it seeks the direction of minimal amplitude). Like all of the forces, particles are moving to minimize their amplitude. Thus, Body A and Body B will be attracted to each other. Gravitation is not a “pull” force. It’s actually a “push” force, but it’s the result of shading and unequal pressure.

This is gravity. Traveling, longitudinal waves that convert some of their energy (and amplitude) to kinetic as it passes through a body. Two bodies produce a shading effect, and particles then move to minimize their amplitude.

### Amplitude Loss for Particles

To calculate gravity as a force based on amplitude loss, a standard amplitude loss needed to be derived for the major components of the atom. Gravity is illustrated in the figure below. In single particles, the amplitude loss is noted in the energy wave equations as α_{G}. However, large bodies consist of many particles, thus the amplitude difference is the sum of each particle’s loss.

A separate amplitude difference value was calculated for the electron and proton. The electron’s gravitational loss (⍺_{Ge}) was shown to be related to magnetism. The gain in transverse energy for particle spin, which becomes the magnetic force, is the loss in longitudinal energy. This was proven with the derivation of the magnetic moment of the electron (Bohr magneton) and applying the loss in gravitational energy to the new transverse wave for magnetism.

This amplitude loss is very weak compared to constructive and destructive wave interference that is the cause of the electric force. So, the electric force dominates wave center movement until the summation of amplitude loss in a collection of particles, e.g. large bodies like planets, is greater than the effect of the electric force. Most large bodies consist of atoms that are neutral (protons and electrons), such that there is negligible constructive or destructive wave interference on bodies consisting of atoms. In this case, gravity is the force that controls large bodies due to the reduction of amplitude. The larger the number of particles in a body, the greater its amplitude loss. Amplitude is also reduced by the square of the distance naturally, so distance also affects the force of attraction.

### Calculating the Force

The Force Equation is used to calculate the force as it is based on particles that move to minimize amplitude. **It is the same Force Equation as the electric force but with a wave amplitude loss for the out-wave. **However, unlike the electric force which is constructive and destructive wave interference, gravity is a loss of amplitude only. The loss for the electron is:

**Gravitational Coupling Constant – Electron**

The calculation of gravity for large bodies requires more than coupling constant for the electron. Large bodies (i.e. stars, planets) consist of many atoms, which are constructed from protons, neutrons and electrons. The electron is much lighter than a proton and neutron, therefore, the reduction of wave amplitude for the proton is used instead (the neutron is roughly the size of a proton plus an electron so it nearly cancels assuming an equal number of these particles in each atom).

The reduction of amplitude for each proton (α_{Gp}) is based on the gravitational coupling constant for the electron multiplied by the square of the proton-electron mass ratio (μ). This is because this constant is based on particle spin, and a proton (with greater mass) requires more energy to spin.

**Gravitational Coupling Constant – Proton**

**Force Equation for Gravity of Large Bodies**

This constant is inserted into the Force Equation, as each value Q (nucleon count) has this amplitude loss. It is used as the Force Equation for Gravity. *Note: the value α _{Gp} can be refined further in terms of wave constants to simplify the equation shown after the explanation of Group Particle Count.*

**Force Equation – Gravity of Large Bodies**

**Group Particle Count**

To use the Force Equation for Gravity, the number of particles must be estimated for large bodies such that the total amplitude loss for the body can be obtained. The variable Q is used to estimate nucleons, as an atom contains protons and neutrons in the nucleus (nucleons) and electrons in orbit. The mass of the proton and neutron are much greater than the electron, so nucleons are used in the estimate. Each proton is normally paired with an electron anyway, and since the neutron is roughly the mass of a proton plus an electron, using a nucleon count with the amplitude loss of the proton turns out to be a very good estimate of particle counts and amplitude loss in a large body.

Thus, to estimate the number of nucleons (Q) in a group, or large body, the following is equation is used. The mass of the group is divided by the mass of the proton. For example the mass of the Sun is divided by the proton mass. When the nucleon estimates for each large body is used in the Force Equation, along with the amplitude loss for the proton, the results are quite accurate despite a method that is used to approximate the number of particles. The results are seen in the gravitational calculations.

**Group Particle Count (Q)**

**Simplified Force Equation for Gravity of Large Bodies**

The Force Equation for Gravity of Large bodies contains a constant for the coupling constant of gravity for the proton (α_{Gp}). This value itself is derived from the coupling constant of the electron and the proton-electron mass ratio (μ or m_{p}/m_{e}). When these are further refined, a simplified version of the Force Equation for Gravity is created.

The expanded Force Equation for Gravity of Large Bodies with the proton-electron mass ratio is:

Replacing μ with the proton-electron mass ratio:

Replacing α_{Ge} with the derived value of the Gravitational Coupling Constant – Electron:

Simplifying the equation above.

**Simplified Force Equation – Gravity of Large Bodies**

* Note:* The derivation of the amplitude loss for the proton, electron and the method for estimating the nucleons in a large body is found in the

*Forces*paper.

**Proof**

Proof of the energy wave explanation for the gravitational force is the derivations of:

Further proof is accomplished by using the Force Equation for Gravity to accurately calculate gravity on various large bodies. All calculations have an accuracy of 0.000% when compared to Newton’s law.

### Example Calculation

Earth’s Gravitational Force on the Moon: In this example, the force of gravity of the Earth on the Moon is calculated. To do this, the Group Particle Count equation (see above) is used to estimate the number of nucleon particles (Q) that will be used in the Force Equation for Gravity.

First, the estimated nucleons are calculated for both the Earth and the Moon. The mass of each is inserted into the numerator and the mass of the proton is inserted into the denominator to solve for nucleon count.

m_{earth} = 5.972 x 10^{24} kg

m_{moon} = 7.34767 x 10^{22} kg

m_{p} = 1.67262 x 10^{-27} kg

**Earth – Nucleon Count (**Q_{earth}**): **3.570E51 particles

**Moon – Nucleon Count (**Q_{moon}**): **4.393E49 particles** **

The above values for the Earth and Moon are used as the values for Q_{1} and Q_{2} respectively. The distance (r) from the Earth to the Moon used in this example is 3.85E8 meters. Lastly, the gravitational coupling constant (α_{Gp}) is used for large body calculations as the reduction in amplitude – the Force Equation for Gravity – Large Bodies.

r = 3.85 x 10^{8} m

Q_{1} = Q_{earth} = 3.570 x 10^{51}

Q_{2} = Q_{moon} = 4.393 x 10^{49}

**
Calculated Force: **1.976E20 newtons

**Difference vs Newton’s Gravitation Law:**0.000%

* Note: *A summary of various gravity calculations is found on this site; more detailed calculations with instructions to reproduce these calculations is found in the

*Forces*paper.