## Background

Magnetism is the second part of the electromagnetic force. In the previous section, the electric force was described. A magnet is an example of the magnetic force. Two magnets placed together may attract each other or they may be forced apart, depending on the alignment of the positive and negative charges and spin (also referred to as poles: north and south). This occurs even when magnets are not in motion.

**Magnetic Force – Permanent Magnets**

Magnetism may also be induced by an electric current, or a current may be induced by magnetism. This relates the electric force and magnetic force, known as the Lorentz force law, where B is the magnetic field and a particle moves with velocity v. When a current flows through a wire it will produce a magnetic field. The stronger the current (faster velocity of particles), the stronger the magnetic force.

**Magnetic Force – Electromagnetism**

**Explanation**

The magnetic force is the result of particle spin, creating a transverse out-wave. Longitudinal in-wave energy causes the motion of one or more wave centers to move to standing wave nodes, introducing the spin of a particle in one of two directions (e.g. clockwise, counter-clockwise), and a transverse wave that is along the axis of rotation (perpendicular to the motion of the wave center). The energy required for wave center motion slightly reduces longitudinal out-wave amplitude as energy is transferred to the new transverse wave from spin. Like the electric force, the attractive or repulsive force due to magnetism is based on wave interference, but is now based on the interference of transverse waves as opposed to longitudinal waves.

**Constructive transverse wave interference**– particles of same spin increase amplitude between particles, forcing particles apart.**Destructive transverse wave interference**– particles of opposite spin decrease amplitude between particles, attracting the particles.*

**Repelling Magnetic Force** – Two electrons of same spin increasing transverse amplitude between particles

**Attractive Magnetic Force** – Two electrons of opposite spin decreasing transverse amplitude between particles*

** In the absence of any other force. Two electrons have constructive longitudinal wave interference which causes two electrons to repel.*

**Magnetic Field Lines**

When a particle spins, two transverse waves are created traveling along the axis of spin. However, the particle is constantly rotating, which then affects the direction of spin and the waves that are generated. Wave centers in a particle are continually positioning to be on the node of the wave (minimizing amplitude). This causes a strange particle spin for the electron and proton (known as 1/2 spin) and is also the reason why energy is constantly needed to keep the particle spinning – when one wave center is positioned to the node, it forces another off node, thus continually spinning.

The spin of the particle causes the magnetic lines as shown above. When the particle spin is constructive, the lines are stronger in the axial directions (bottom left in figure). When these field lines meet lines from particles with opposite spin, the waves are destructive and form a new pattern (bottom right in figure).

**Magnetic Force – At Rest**

At rest, a single electron has a magnetic moment due to a constant spin as wave centers reposition within the electron. The magnetic moment is known as the Bohr magneton, which is a fundamental physical constant. Furthermore, the slight loss of longitudinal wave energy is also shown to be the force of gravity. The electron’s magnetic moment and the slight loss of longitudinal energy can be derived using the complete form of the longitudinal in- and out-wave energy for particles.

Magnetism is also seen in permanent magnets (dipole magnets), where the strength of magnetism is strong at short distances but declines rapidly with the cube of distance. This force is seen in the orbital force which holds an electron in orbit, which also decreases at the cube of distance. Unbalanced particles that do not cancel this transverse wave will experience a force.

**Magnetic Force – In Motion**

An electric field causes a magnetic field and vice versa. When a particle moves due to constructive or destructive longitudinal waves (electric force), it now has a speed and direction (velocity). The velocity of the particle causes it to spin faster – individual wave centers reach incoming longitudinal waves faster, causing faster spin. Now, electrons that may have cancelled magnetic spin waves while at rest are no longer cancelled as one or more particles may be spinning faster. The additional energy is the magnetic energy as a result of motion.

**Magnetic Force – Electromagnetism**

**Equation**

In simple terms, the force of **electromagnetism **for induced current (moving electrons) using two groups (Q) of particles separated at distance (r), and the properties of the electron’s mass and radius (m_{e }and r_{e}), is shown below. This is the magnetic force of an electron in motion with velocity (v). It is the electric force with v^{2} replacing c^{2} since it is kinetic energy of a moving electron.

**Magnetic Force**

Using classical constants | Using energy wave constants |

**Proof**

Proof of the energy wave explanation for the magnetic force and the relation to gravity is the derivations and calculations of:

- Bohr magneton
- Gravitational coupling constants
- Calculations of magnetic forces –
*see example calculation below*

### Two Electrons at Bohr Radius (*velocity difference of 2.5E-4 m/s*) – Calculation

The calculation is shown with the magnetic force equation in **two formats** (classical constants and wave constants). Both result in the same solution.

**Variables:**

- Q
_{1}**= –**1 (*electron*) - Q
_{2}**= –**1 (*electron*) - r = a
_{0}= 5.2918E-11 m (*Bohr radius*) - v = 2.5E-4 m/s

**Equation #1: **Magnetic Force Equation – Classical Format

**Result: **5.729E-32 newtons (kg m/s^{2})

**Equation #2: **Magnetic Force Equation – Wave Format

**Result: **5.729E-32 newtons (kg m/s^{2})

**Comments:** There is no difference (0.000%) from Distinti’s New Magnetism for point particles using either formats of the equation.

* Note: *A summary of various magnetic force calculations is found on this site; more detailed calculations with instructions to reproduce these calculations is found in the

*Forces*paper.