## Background

Magnetism is the second part of the electromagnetic force. In the previous section, the electric force was described. A magnet is an example of the magnetic force. Two magnets placed together may attract each other or they may be forced apart, depending on the alignment of the positive and negative charges (also referred to as poles: north and south). This occurs even when the magnets are not in motion.

Magnetism may also be induced by an electric current. When a current flows through a wire it will produce a magnetic field. The stronger the current (faster velocity of electrons), the stronger the magnetic force.

Magnetism is weaker than another force known as the strong force, but it is still stronger than the force of gravity. For example, take a powerful magnet such as the ones used at car wrecking yards to hoist cars, and magnetism has the power to overcome gravity. Magnetism has more strength to pull the car up than gravity has to pull the car down. Magnetism wins. However, try to pull a proton from a nucleus using an electron, using magnetism, and it is not able to overcome the strong force that holds a proton in the nucleus. The strong force wins.

*Credit: hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu*

**Explanation**

The magnetic force is the result of particle spin, creating an out-wave that is transverse and axial. The particle will spin so the axis will continually change and create a magnetic field. The change in longitudinal in-wave amplitude to longitudinal out-wave amplitude is conserved, becoming the transverse wave energy that is magnetic. It can be calculated using the complete form of the longitudinal in- and out-wave energy for particles.

**Magnetic Field Lines**

When a particle spins, two transverse waves are created traveling along the axis of spin. However, the particle is constantly rotating, which then affects the direction of spin and the waves that are generated. Wave centers in a particle are continually positioning to be on the node of the wave (minimizing amplitude). This causes a strange particle spin for the electron and proton (known as 1/2 spin) and is also the reason why energy is constantly needed to keep the particle spinning – when one wave center is positioned to the node, it forces another off node, thus continually spinning.

The spin of the particle causes the magnetic lines as shown above. When the particle spin is constructive, the lines are stronger in the axial directions (bottom left in figure). When these field lines meet lines from particles with opposite spin, the waves are destructive and form a new pattern (bottom right in figure).

**Magnetic Force – Electron at Rest**

At rest, a single electron has a magnetic moment due to the constant spin as wave centers reposition within the electron. The magnetic moment is known as the Bohr magneton, which is a fundamental physical constant. It is the slight loss of longitudinal wave energy that will also be shown to be the force of gravity. The Bohr magneton is accurately calculated using wave constants.

**Magnetic Force – Electron in Motion**

An electric field causes magnetism and vice versa. When a particle moves due to constructive or destructive longitudinal waves (electric force), it now has a speed and direction (velocity). The velocity of the particle causes it to spin faster – the individual wave centers reach incoming longitudinal waves faster, causing faster spin. Now, electrons that may have cancelled magnetic spin waves while at rest are no longer cancelled as one or more particles may be spinning faster. The additional energy is the magnetic energy as a result of motion.

**Equation**

In simple terms, the force of **electromagnetism** (moving electrons) using two groups (Q) of particles separated at distance (r), and the properties of the electron’s energy, mass and radius (E_{e}, m_{e }and r_{e}), is shown below. This is the magnetic force of an electron in motion with velocity (v). It is the electric force with v^{2} replacing c^{2} since it is kinetic energy of a moving electron.

When expressed in wave constant terms, it is the magnetic force for an induced current:

**Magnetic Force**

**Proof**

Proof of the energy wave explanation for the magnetic force is the derivations and calculations of:

- Bohr magneton
- Calculations of magnetic forces –
*see example calculation below* - Gravitational coupling constant –
*see below*

### Example Calculation –* Electron in Motion*

An example using the Magnetic Force Equation is provided and compared to Distinti’s New Magnetism for point particles. Further examples are provided on the calculations page. All calculations have an accuracy of 0.000% when compared to Distinti’s New Magnetism for point particles.

r _{ }= 1.0 m

v = 2.4E-4 m/s

Q_{1} = -1

Q_{2} = -1

**Calculated Value: **1.604E-52 newtons

**Difference – Distinti’s New Magnetism:** 0.000%

### Gravitational Coupling Constant

The amplitude loss (⍺_{Ge}) was found to be the missing longitudinal wave energy that causes gravity, thereby linking gravity to magnetism as a result of particle spin. The value ⍺_{Ge} is also the known gravitational coupling constant (relative to the electric force).

Similar to all the fundamental physical constants, even the gravitational coupling constant can be defined in wave constant terms. In fact, some of the constants can be derived two ways, based on the Longitudinal Energy Equation or Transverse Energy Equation. It is derived as:

*or*

Both result in values of 2.4E-43.

* Note: *A summary of various magnetic force calculations is found on this site; more detailed calculations with instructions to reproduce these calculations is found in the

*Forces*paper.