Magnetism is the second part of the electromagnetic force. In the previous section, the electric force was described.

A magnet is an example of the magnetic force. Two magnets placed together may attract each other or they may be forced apart, depending on the alignment of the positive and negative charges (also referred to as poles: north and south).

Magnetism is weaker than another force known as the strong force, but it is still stronger than the force of gravity.  For example, take a powerful magnet such as the ones used at car wrecking yards to hoist cars, and magnetism has the power to overcome gravity. Magnetism has more strength to pull the car up than gravity has to pull the car down. Magnetism wins.  However, try to pull a proton from a nucleus using an electron, using magnetism, and it is not able to overcome the strong force that holds a proton in the nucleus. The strong force wins.

magnetic force





The magnetic force is the result of particle spin, creating an out-wave that is transverse and axial.  The particle will spin so the axis will continually change and create a magnetic field.

The change in longitudinal in-wave amplitude to longitudinal out-wave amplitude is conserved, becoming the transverse wave energy that is magnetic. The diagram below represents a conservation of energy as it changes. The amplitude loss (⍺Ge) was found to be the missing longitudinal wave energy that causes gravity, thereby linking gravity to magnetism as a result of particle spin. The value ⍺Ge is also the known gravitational coupling constant (relative to the electric force).


Magnetism diagram 1


In greater detail for the electron, this missing energy was calculated to be the natural unit of the electron’s magnetic moment – the Bohr magneton. It is converted to the new transverse wave associated with particle spin. This was proven in the equation for the Force Equation and is not repeated here.


magnetism diagram 2


Similar to all the fundamental physical constants, even the gravitational coupling constant can be defined in wave constant terms.  In fact, some of the constants can be derived two ways, based on the Longitudinal Energy Equation or Transverse Energy Equation. It is derived as:

gravity coupling constant


gravitational coupling constant 2


Both result in values of 2.4E-43.


Magnetic Field Lines

The magnetic force is an axial, transverse wave. As the particle spins, two transverse waves are created traveling along the axis of spin. However, the particle is constantly rotating, which then affects the direction of spin and the waves that are generated. Wave centers in a particle are continually positioning to be on the node of the wave (minimizing amplitude). This causes a strange particle spin for the electron and proton (known as 1/2 spin) and is also the reason why energy is constantly needed to keep the particle spinning – when one wave center is positioned to the node, it forces another off node, thus continually spinning.


magnetic fields


The spin of the particle causes the magnetic lines as shown above. When the particle spin is constructive, the lines are stronger in the axial directions (bottom left in figure). When these field lines meet lines from particles with opposite spin, the waves are destructive and form a new pattern (bottom right in figure).


Note: A summary of various electromagnetic force calculations is found on this site; more detailed calculations with instructions to reproduce these calculations is found in the Forces paper.