Weak Force


The weak force is thought to be responsible for particle decay, most notably the changing of a neutron to a proton, or vice versa, the transformation of a proton into a neutron. The figure below is an example of beta decay when a neutron (n) becomes a proton (p) due to the weak force. During the process, an electron (e) and an antineutrino (v) are ejected during the process.

Weak Force




The weak force was not modeled as a separate force.  It may be potentially modeled as an aggregate of strong force and electromagnetic force reaction, but it does not have a separate coupling constant.

It is theorized that nuclear binding may occur due to the strong force interaction between a positron (proton) and an electron-positron combination (neutron). In this potential structure, nucleons would consist of the following.

  • The proton and neutron would both have four electrons tightly bound in a tetrahedral shape. The electrons have no external charge as their energies are converted into gluons, binding the wave centers together to form a new particle.
  • In addition to the above, the proton would have a positron in its center. This would give the particle a positive charge. It becomes the pentaquark observed in recent experiments.
  • In addition to the above, the neutron would have an electron in its center. The destructive wave interference of the positron and electron in the center would give it a neutral charge.
  • The particles in the center are held in place by electromagnetic and strong forces (the interaction with the positron and other nucleon binding). If the electron in the neutron is disrupted, it is ejected and the neutron becomes a proton.

The definition above is consistent with the beta decay of a neutron in which it becomes a proton. If this were the case, the weak force would be the electromagnetic/strong force that holds the electron in the center of the neutron. If a force greater than the force holding it in place disrupts it, it would be ejected.

In beta decay, neutrons in stable nuclei may exist forever, while a free neutron decays after ~15 minutes into a proton. The free neutron may be explained by the fact that the electron in the neutron’s center is only held in place by the electromagnetic force. It takes a force greater than the electromagnetic force holding it in place to be ejected. Meanwhile, the stable neutron in nuclei formation is also governed by the strong force. The forces disrupting the neutron in atomic nuclei are not sufficient to overcome the strong force and it does not decay.

If this is the weak force, then it must account for the event that causes a free neutron to decay at regular intervals. One possibility is solar neutrinos. If a particle, such as a neutrino emitted from the Sun, collides with a free neutron with sufficient force, it may be able to eject the electron in the neutron’s center. This would also explain why a neutrino is seen ejected in experiments. It has been found that the neutron’s decay rates vary slightly with the distance between the Earth and the Sun during annual modulation. The decay rate is faster when the Earth is closer to the Sun in January, and slower when the Earth is farther from the Sun in July. The probability of a random event of a solar neutrino collision may not be as random, given a stable Sun (in the absence of solar flares, etc.) and distance between the Earth and Sun. If this is the case, then the same neutron decay experiment conducted on another planet, such as Mars or Pluto, should yield different results for beta decay timing.

A new test is proposed to validate this theory of solar neutrinos being responsible for beta decay. Neutron decay is based on an element like a solar neutrino that collides at some predictable frequency. Thus, it would be expected to decay at a slower rate further from the Sun, likely slowing at a rate equal to the square of the distance from the Sun (if it is indeed a solar particle that is responsible for decay).



Where is the proof?

The proof comes from beta decay experiments for the proton and neutron. Three examples are provided. If a solar neutrino, with kinetic energy as it travels from the Sun, has sufficient energy, it can dislodge the electron/positron in the center of the nucleon for examples #2 and #3. The center electron/positron experiences the nuclear force when in an atomic nucleus and the kinetic energy of the solar neutrino is not sufficient to dislodge the center particle.


Weak force before decay


The following is the observed states of the neutron and proton in beta minus and beta plus decay respectively. The solar neutrino dislodges the particle and change the neutron to a proton, or a proton to a empty shell (effectively a neutral particle like the neutron).  This is the state after the impact of the solar neutrino. This structure of the proton and neutron would match experiments and can be explained by classical mechanics (kinetic energy of solar neutrino versus electric force/strong force of the particle in the center of the proton or neutron).


Weak force after decay


More detail about the proposed structure of the proton and neutron using the pentaquark model was found in the strong force and orbitals. An explanation for the currently proposed three-quark structure and why it is commonly found in experiments is described in the section on quark confinement.


They can also be found in both the Forces and Fundamental Physical Constants papers.