Weak Force


The weak force is thought to be responsible for particle decay, most notably the changing of a neutron to a proton, or vice versa, the transformation of a proton into a neutron. The figure below is an example of beta decay when a neutron (n) becomes a proton (p) due to the weak force. During the process, an electron (e) and an antineutrino (v) are ejected during the process.

Weak Force




The weak force is not a separate force.  Instead, it is likely to be an aggregate of strong and electromagnetic forces, depending on the location of a neutron – in an atomic nucleus or existing as a free neutron. It is proposed in this theory that the proton and neutron consist of the following (see the respective pages for illustrations of this model):

  • The proton and neutron would both have four electrons tightly bound in a tetrahedral shape. These tetrahedral electrons have no external charge as their energies are converted into gluons, binding the wave centers together to form a new particle.
  • The proton would have a positron in its center. This would give the particle a positive charge.
  • The neutron would have a positron and electron in its center. The destructive wave interference of the positron and electron in the center would give it a neutral charge. It may also be an empty shell without a positron or electron, which would also be neutral.


Free Neutron 

In beta decay observations, a free neutron decays after ~15 minutes into a proton. The free neutron may be explained by the fact that the electron in the neutron’s center is only held in place by the electromagnetic force. It takes a force greater than the electromagnetic force, such as the energy of a solar neutrino traveling from the Sun, to eject the center electron. It is a probabilistic event but the frequency of neutrinos arriving at Earth is predictable and the likelihood of it striking the center of a free neutron may be every 15 minutes. The result is a proton and the ejected particles are an electron and a neutrino (see diagram in proof below).

It has been found that the neutron’s decay rates vary slightly with the distance between the Earth and the Sun during annual modulation. The decay rate is faster when the Earth is closer to the Sun in January, and slower when the Earth is farther from the Sun in July. The probability of a random event of a solar neutrino collision may not be as random, given a stable Sun (in the absence of solar flares, etc.) and distance between the Earth and Sun. The decay rate is also slower when neutrons are moving in a beam versus stable in a container.


Neutron in Nuclei

A neutron in nuclei formation is also governed by the strong force. It is generally stable and may exist forever. The forces disrupting the neutron in atomic nuclei are not sufficient to overcome the strong force and it does not decay. The exception would be events (particle collisions) that have significant energy to dislodge the center electron. If this occurs, the results are the same as above (free neutron).



A proton, with a positron at its center, can lose the positron with sufficient energy – such as a solar neutrino. It becomes an empty shell of a nucleon with a neutral charge, appearing like a neutron. The output particles would once again match the expected beta decay results: the proton becomes a neutron and a positron and neutrino are ejected.

In a separate process known as electron capture, a proton in an atom can capture an electron. This turns the proton into a neutron according to this model. Both the electron and beta decay processes have been animated and shown for the proton in the proton explanation page.




The proof comes from beta decay experiments for the proton and neutron. Three examples are provided. If a solar neutrino with kinetic energy as it travels from the Sun has sufficient energy, it can dislodge the electron/positron in the center of the nucleon for examples #2 and #3. The center electron/positron experiences the nuclear force when in an atomic nucleus and the kinetic energy of the solar neutrino is not sufficient to dislodge the center particle.

Weak force before decay


The following is the observed states of the neutron and proton in beta minus and beta plus decay respectively. The solar neutrino dislodges the particle and change the neutron to a proton, or a proton to a empty shell (effectively a neutral particle like the neutron).  This is the state after the impact of the solar neutrino. This structure of the proton and neutron would match experiments and can be explained by classical mechanics (kinetic energy of solar neutrino versus electric force/strong force of the particle in the center of the proton or neutron).

Weak force after decay


Proposed Test for Proof

A new test is proposed to validate this theory of solar neutrinos being responsible for beta decay. Neutron decay is based on an element like a solar neutrino that collides at some predictable frequency. Thus, it would be expected to decay at a slower rate further from the Sun, likely slowing at a rate equal to the square of the distance from the Sun – if it is indeed a solar particle that is responsible for decay.


NoteMore detail about the proposed structure of the proton and neutron using the pentaquark model is found in the strong force and orbitals. The structures can also be found in both the Forces and Fundamental Physical Constants papers.