Understanding Waves

Energy is the motion of the aether, which travels as waves. Waves may change forms, be additive or subtractive when in the presence of other waves, but energy will always be conserved. 

  • Particles are standing, longitudinal waves.
  • Photons are transverse, traveling waves
  • The electric force is the fundamental force – traveling longitudinal waves.
  • All other forces are a change in wave form or amplitude of the fundamental force.
  • All motion is the movement of particles to minimize wave amplitude.

The following sections will describe each of these in detail, but first, the types of waves must be described and a common terminology defined for the interaction of waves. The next page will describe the laws for wave interaction.


Types of Waves

There are four common terms used to describe waves: two are related to the form and two are related to the motion.  A visual for each is provided below to understand these waves.


Wave terminology summary


Longitudinal Wave – A longitudinal wave has the same direction of vibration, and particle movement, as the direction of travel. A Slinky, the kid’s toy, is one example. The coils in the Slinky are being displaced in the direction of travel.

Longitudinal Wave

Credit: Dan Russell


Transverse Wave – A transverse wave is oscillating perpendicular to the direction of travel, unlike the longitudinal wave that is in the same direction of travel. Its particle movement is up-and-down (in the example below) as opposed to the left-to-right movement of the longitudinal wave (in the example above).

Transverse Wave

Credit: Dan Russell

Traveling Wave – A traveling wave, as the name implies, is a wave that is moving. It may be either longitudinal or transverse, but will move in the direction of propagation. The top image is longitudinal, traveling waves. The bottom is a transverse wave.

Traveling Wave

Credit: Ralph Muehleisen


Standing Wave – A standing wave is a stationary wave, remaining in a constant position. An example might be an ocean wave that has a peak that is constantly five feet from the shoreline, never traveling to the shore. The wave moves up and down, peaking at a few feet above sea level and then dropping a few feet below sea level, always in the same place. A standing wave can form when two waves of equal amplitude and frequency are traveling in opposite directions.

Standing Wave

Credit: Dan Russell

Properties of Waves

Waves may combine, increasing or decreasing their amplitude. This is known as constructive wave interference.

Constructive Waves – the interference of two or more waves of equal frequency and phase, resulting in their mutual reinforcement and producing a single amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the individual waves.

Constructive Waves


Destructive Waves – the interference of two waves of equal frequency and opposite phase, resulting in their cancellation where the negative displacement of one always coincides with the positive displacement of the other. This is a particle and its anti-particle.

Destructive Wave


Wave Terminology

All other major wave terms used throughout this site and paper and their definitions are listed below.  Most terms are used from definitions from Dictionary.com. Italicized terms are introduced by energy wave theory.

  • Aether – the hypothetical medium formerly believed to fill all space and to support the propagation of electromagnetic waves. Also referred to as ether.
  • Amplitude – the maximum displacement or distance moved by a point on a vibrating body or wave measured from its equilibrium position. It is equal to one-half the length of the vibration path.
  • Amplitude factorThe resulting amplitude at a given point in space and time, calculated as a result of constructive and destructive waves.
  • Constructive interference – the interference of two or more waves of equal frequency and phase, resulting in their mutual reinforcement and producing a single amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the individual waves.
  • Density – A measure of the quantity of some physical property per unit length, area, or volume (usually volume).
  • Energy – The capacity or power to do work, such as the capacity to move an object (of a given mass) by the application of force. Energy can exist in a variety of forms, such as electrical, mechanical, chemical, thermal, or nuclear, and can be transformed from one form to another.
  • Force – In physics, something that causes a change in the motion of an object.
  • GranuleThe fabric or substance of the aether allowing energy to flow. Granules respond to a wave such that it can pass its inertia and momentum to the next granule.
  • In-waveThe incoming wave into a wave center before it is reflected.
  • Longitudinal wave – a wave that is propagated in the same direction as the displacement of the transmitting medium. See example above.
  • Node – A node is a point along a standing wave where the wave has zero amplitude. A wave center is stable at the node of the standing wave.
  • Out-waveThe outgoing wave reflected from a wave center.
  • Particle – one of the extremely small constituents of matter, as an atom or nucleus. Created from wave centers reflecting longitudinal waves to create standing waves.
  • Photon – A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of all forms of electromagnetic radiation including light. It is the force carrier for electromagnetic force, even when static via virtual photons. It is a short-lived transverse wave of energy. Since it has no wave center, or standing wave, it has no stored energy (mass).
  • Standing wave – a wave in a medium in which each point on the axis of the wave has an associated constant amplitude ranging from zero at the nodes to a maximum at the antinodes. See example above.
  • Transverse wave – A wave that oscillates perpendicular to the axis along which the wave. See example above.
  • Traveling wave – a wave in which the medium moves in the direction of propagation of the wave. See example above.
  • Wave centerthe reflecting point of waves, creating a standing wave.
  • Wavelength – The distance between one peak or crest of a wave and the next peak or crest. It is equal to the speed of the wave divided by its frequency, and to the speed of a wave times its period.


Standing Wave Nodes

Amplitude, Wavelength and the Nodes of a Standing Wave