# Waves

## Understanding Waves

Energy is the motion of the aether, which travels as waves. Waves may change type and form, or their amplitudes may be additive or subtractive when combined with other waves, but in all cases energy will always be conserved.

## Types of Waves

There are four common terms used to describe wave type and form. Waves may be longitudinal or transverse, and each type may be standing or traveling. Descriptions of these terms are found below. In addition, icons are used throughout this site to describe waves as follows:

Wave icons

Longitudinal Wave – A longitudinal wave has the same direction of vibration, and particle movement, as the direction of travel. A relevant example is sound waves, which is the motion of air molecules. In the example below, the dark lines represents the spacing of wavelengths. The displacement distance from equilibrium of the air molecules in red is wave amplitude. Notice how the red molecule closer to the center travels a greater distance (amplitude) than the molecule closer to the edge. Amplitude decreases as waves spread out spherically.

Credit: ISVR

Transverse Wave – A transverse wave is oscillating perpendicular to the direction of travel, unlike the longitudinal wave that is in the same direction of travel. Its particle movement is up-and-down (in the example below) as opposed to the left-to-right movement of the longitudinal wave (in the example above).

Credit: Dan Russell

Standing Wave – A standing wave is a stationary wave, remaining in a constant position. An example might be an ocean wave that has a peak that is constantly five feet from the shoreline, never traveling to the shore. The wave moves up and down, peaking at a few feet above sea level and then dropping a few feet below sea level, always in the same place. A standing wave can form when two waves of equal amplitude and frequency are traveling in opposite directions.

Credit: Dan Russell

Traveling Wave – A traveling wave, as the name implies, is a wave that is moving. It may be either longitudinal or transverse, but will move in the direction of propagation.

Credit: Dan Russell

## Wave Interference

Waves may combine, increasing or decreasing their amplitude. This is known as wave interference.

Constructive Wave Interference

The interference of two or more waves of equal frequency and phase, resulting in their mutual reinforcement and producing a single amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the individual waves.

Destructive Wave Interference

The interference of two or more waves of equal frequency and opposite phase, resulting in their cancellation where negative displacement of one coincides with positive displacement of the other.  This is a particle and its antiparticle.

## Motion to Minimize Wave Amplitude

The fundamental rule of particle motion is for wave centers to move to minimize wave amplitude. The standing and traveling wave forms have an effect on this rule for forces and for the creation of particles and antiparticles.

A standing wave has nodes where amplitude is zero, which creates a position for wave centers to be stable. There are two standing wave nodes per wavelength, at opposite wave phase (antiphase), such that wave centers placed at these two nodes will experience destructive wave interference.

This creates the possibility of two identical particles, but with opposite charge (wave amplitude phase).

Wave centers stable at standing wave nodes

Wave centers will move to minimize wave amplitude, but it may not always be the point of zero amplitude. Waves travel in all directions and experience wave interference, increasing or decreasing amplitude. Wave centers follow the path of minimal wave amplitude.

## Wave Terminology

All other major wave terms used throughout this site and paper and their definitions are listed below.  Most terms are used from definitions from Dictionary.comItalicized terms are introduced by energy wave theory.

• Aether – the hypothetical medium formerly believed to fill all space and to support the propagation of electromagnetic waves. Also referred to as ether.
• Amplitude – the maximum displacement or distance moved by a point on a vibrating body or wave measured from its equilibrium position. It is equal to one-half the length of the vibration path.
• Amplitude factor – The resulting amplitude at a given point in space and time, calculated as a result of constructive and destructive waves.
• Constructive interference – the interference of two or more waves of equal frequency and phase, resulting in their mutual reinforcement and producing a single amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the individual waves.
• Density – A measure of the quantity of some physical property per unit length, area, or volume (usually volume).
• Energy – The capacity or power to do work, such as the capacity to move an object (of a given mass) by the application of force. Energy can exist in a variety of forms, such as electrical, mechanical, chemical, thermal, or nuclear, and can be transformed from one form to another.
• Force – In physics, something that causes a change in the motion of an object.
• Granule – The fabric or substance of the aether allowing energy to flow. Granules respond to a wave such that it can pass its inertia and momentum to the next granule.
• In-wave – The incoming wave into a wave center before it is reflected.
• Longitudinal wave – a wave that is propagated in the same direction as the displacement of the transmitting medium. See example above.
• Node – A node is a point along a standing wave where the wave has zero amplitude. A wave center is stable at the node of the standing wave.
• Out-wave – The outgoing wave reflected from a wave center.
• Particle – one of the extremely small constituents of matter, as an atom or nucleus. Created from wave centers reflecting longitudinal waves to create standing waves.
• Photon – A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of all forms of electromagnetic radiation including light. It is the force carrier for electromagnetic force, even when static via virtual photons. It is a short-lived transverse wave of energy. Since it has no wave center, or standing wave, it has no stored energy (mass).
• Standing wave – a wave in a medium in which each point on the axis of the wave has an associated constant amplitude ranging from zero at the nodes to a maximum at the antinodes. See example above.
• Transverse wave – A wave that oscillates perpendicular to the axis along which the wave. See example above.
• Traveling wave – a wave in which the medium moves in the direction of propagation of the wave. See example above.
• Wave center – the reflecting point of waves, creating a standing wave.
• Wavelength – The distance between one peak or crest of a wave and the next peak or crest. It is equal to the speed of the wave divided by its frequency, and to the speed of a wave times its period.