## What is a particle?

A particle may generally be defined as a small fragment of matter. The focus of this web site is specifically on subatomic particles, which is matter components that are smaller than atoms, or may be components of the atom itself.

Some particles are found all around us. In fact, they’re in us. The particles that make up atoms are: electrons, protons and neutrons. They form to create elements like oxygen, carbon, silver, gold and all other elements as described in the Periodic Table of Elements.

Some of these particles are composite particles – known to be made of smaller components. Protons and neutrons, for example, can be smashed together in particle accelerators until the point that they break into their constituent parts. In the case of protons and neutrons, these smaller parts are called quarks. There are dozens of additional particles that are also composite particles, and also found in particle accelerator experiments. They are given names and considered to be particles, but yet these are known to *decay* to smaller particles known as elementary particles.

A summary of the elementary particles described by the Standard Model of particles is found below. The Standard Model also includes force particles (gluon, photon, bosons) as it is assumed that a particle is the *carrier *of certain forces.

## How are they formed?

In energy wave theory, particles are standing waves of energy reflected from a combination of one or more wave centers. A wave center may be thought of as a mirror – a reflecting point of the spherical, longitudinal wave. *The figure below is simplified for illustration, but the in-waves and out-waves are spherical in three dimensions.*

Wave centers may combine if they are in stable positions on standing nodes of the longitudinal wave. They will break apart (decay) if they are not in geometric positions that allow for this stability. This model is logical, as nature repeats itself. This is the same model as an atomic nucleus, where protons and neutrons arrange in geometric formation. Some of these arrangements tend to be more stable than others.

**Particle Formation and Decay**

If this seems logical, as it has a known equivalent in the world of atoms and elements, why wasn’t this model proposed earlier? Atomic elements have mass that are linear. The mass of protons and neutrons within atomic elements follow a logical pattern because their mass can be added together. Hydrogen has an atomic mass of one (1.00794 u); helium has an atomic mass of four (4.002602 u). After establishing a pattern, it was easy to understand that helium had four nucleons – two protons plus two neutrons. Thus, helium could be placed into the Periodic Table of Elements in position #2, because it contains two protons.

The mass of particles is not as simple. It doesn’t follow a linear path by adding the masses of its components together. The mass of the electron is about 232,000 times greater than the estimated mass of the neutrino, and the mass of the proton is 1,836 times greater than the mass of the electron. This is because particle mass cannot be added together.

When wave centers combine, the standing wave structure that is measured as mass, increases in both amplitude and radius in three-dimensional space. Particles are standing waves of energy, based on the frequency and amplitude of the wave, in a defined volume of a given density. This is the base energy wave equation:

**Energy Wave Equation**

Particle mass is energy without consideration of wave speed (c).

**Mass Equation**

The energy is represented by two waves: an in-wave and an out-wave. As wave centers combine, constructive wave interference leads to an increase in amplitude in three dimensions (pictured as x, y, z) and the standing wave form extends longer, i.e. the radius of the particle is modified and the volume measuring the energy is also changed. This is simplified into a picture below. The Longitudinal Energy Equation was derived from this base equation and these assumptions.

The in-waves and out-waves reflecting off the wave centers at the core of the particle create a standing wave, which is stored energy. Mass is therefore stored energy. As a standing wave cannot maintain this form beyond a certain distance from the reflecting point, it eventually becomes a traveling wave. This is the radius of the particle.

## Where is the proof?

An equation for calculating standing wave energy – Longitudinal Energy Equation – was used to calculate particle energies from the lightest neutrino to the heavy Higgs boson.

**Linear Sequence to Particles**- With a modification to the equation, all of the known particles fit reasonably into a linear sequence when mapping particle mass/energy versus particle number. This is the same process that was used for atomic elements and the creation of the Periodic Table of Elements.
- In this sequence, the masses of leptons appear at the same magic number sequence (2, 8, 20, 28, 50) as atoms in the Periodic Table of Elements. Only #2 is missing in the sequence and may be an undiscovered neutrino.
- The sequence starts with the neutrino at a particle count of 1. The largest particle (Higgs boson) has a particle count of 117. This is near the end of the known Periodic Table of Elements which ends at 118.

**Visual Proof of Electron**- In 2008, the electron was filmed at Lund University in Sweden and shown to have a standing wave structure. Furthermore, the number of wavelengths is roughly ten wavelengths, matching the calculations of energy wave theory.

**Relationship Between Particles and Photons**- A relationship is established between particle energy and photons. Using the conservation of energy principle, mathematical explanations of the photons generated from electron transitions in an atomic orbital and annihilation can be directly linked to the waves generated by particles.

**Relationship Between Particles and Forces**- The Longitudinal Energy Equation was also used to derive the Force Equation for the electric force (which itself is then derived to the strong force and gravity). Mass and the electric force come from the same wave energy but is a difference in standing wave vs traveling waves. Calculations of the electric force prove this derivation.

**Video Summary**