Particles

What is a Particle?

A particle may generally be defined as a small fragment of matter. The focus of this web site is specifically on subatomic particles, which is matter components that are smaller than atoms, or may be components of the atom itself. Some particles are found all around us. In fact, they’re in us. The particles that make up atoms are: electrons, protons and neutrons. They form to create elements like oxygen, carbon, silver, gold and all other elements as described in the Periodic Table of Elements.

Matter is based on arrangements of molecules, which is formed from these subatomic particles. Nature builds from the smallest particles to the objects that we see as matter.

particles to atoms to molecules

Credit: Chem4kids

 

Standard Model of Elementary Particles

Two of the components of the atom are known to be made of smaller components. Protons and neutrons can be smashed together in particle accelerators until the point that they break into their constituent parts. These smaller parts are called quarks. There are dozens of additional particles that are also composite particles and found in particle accelerator experiments. They are given names and considered to be particles, yet they are known to decay into smaller particles known as elementary particles.

A summary of the elementary particles described by the Standard Model of particles is found below. The Standard Model also includes force particles (gluon, photon, bosons) as it is assumed that a particle is the carrier of certain forces.

Standard Model

 

The Formation of Particles

In energy wave theory, particles are standing waves of energy reflected from a combination of one or more wave centers. A wave center may be thought of as a mirror – a reflecting point of the spherical, longitudinal wave. From Laws #1 and #2 of the Theory Laws, energy travels as waves in the aether and travels in the direction of motion transferring energy from one granule to the next. From Law #3, when this energy reaches a wave center, it reflects the energy backward. An analogy might be water molecules transferring energy (granules) forward in a wave until reaching a buoy (wave center), which then reflects the water molecules.

The spherical reflected wave creates a standing wave to a distance which becomes the definition of the particle’s volume. The standing wave energy is now a particle. A single wave center, is shown below. The energy reflected by a single wave center matches the properties of the neutrino.

Single wave center

Single Wave Center – Fundamental Particle

 

From Law #4 of the Theory Laws, wave centers may combine if they are in stable positions on standing nodes of the longitudinal wave. This is the point of minimal amplitude in a standing wave – note that traveling waves are different. The figure below is simplified for illustration, but the in-waves and out-waves are spherical in three dimensions.

Electron and inwaves and outwaves

Multiple Wave Centers – Formation of New Particles

 

From Law #5 of the Theory Laws, particle energy and mass are calculated as the volume of wave energy. In the case of particles, it is standing wave (stored) energy that has increased in both amplitude and volume as a result of multiple wave centers reflecting waves. The energy significantly increases as more wave centers are added to the formation.

 

Particle Creation and Decay

Particles may be created by combining wave centers (oscillation) and particles may also break apart (decay). Oscillation is typically seen with neutrinos due to energy levels that are low enough in nature for this to occur. Particles are also created in particle accelerator labs with energies greater than nature. But particles that are created artificially will often decay quickly.

From Law #4, wave centers move to minimize wave amplitude. In a standing wave structure, this is the node of the standing wave. However, there are few geometric arrangements that allow all wave centers to be placed on the node of a three-dimensional standing wave. This model is logical, as nature repeats itself. This is the same model as an atomic nucleus, where protons and neutrons arrange in geometric formation. Some of these arrangements tend to be more stable than others.

Particle Formation and Decay

 

If this seems logical, as it has a known equivalent in the world of atoms and elements, why wasn’t this model proposed earlier? Atomic elements have mass that is linear. The mass of protons and neutrons within atomic elements follow a logical pattern because their mass can be added together. The mass of particles is not as simple. It doesn’t follow a linear path by adding the masses of its components together. The mass of the electron is about 232,000 times greater than the estimated mass of the neutrino, and the mass of the proton is 1,836 times greater than the mass of the electron. Now, with energy wave theory, a solution to linearize the masses of known subatomic particles was found, creating the link between particles and atomic elements.

“This model… has a known equivalent in the world of atoms and elements”

 

Particles Create Matter

A single wave center goes through many steps to create matter. The wave center, likely the neutrino, combines to build other particles. The electron can be created as a combination of wave centers. The electron and its anti-matter counterpart, the positron, will be shown to be able to create nucleons (protons and neutrons).  From these particles, it is well established that different atomic elements can be created as a combination of protons in the nucleus. The binding of these atomic elements creates molecules that we see as matter.

neutrino to molecules - building tetrahedral shapes based on simple rule of wave minimization

 

Interestingly, the shapes and arrangements of all of these likely follow Law #4. Wave centers move to standing wave nodes. The most stable arrangement for three-dimensional space is a tetrahedron. It will be shown throughout this web site that stable particles, nucleons and atomic nuclei have various tetrahedral structures. This method is also used to explain the Periodic Table of Elements and the VSEPR structure of molecules.

The electron’s rest energy and mass is proven using a collection of 10 neutrinos (wave centers) and by increasing its standing wave radius and amplitude proportionally based on this collection. Ten neutrinos would form a three-level tetrahedron.

The proton is proposed to be a pentaquark, as evidenced by the strong force, weak force and atomic orbital derivations and calculations in this theory. In the proposed pentaquark model of the proton, there are four quarks at the tetrahedral vertices and an anti-quark at the center. This is a two-level tetrahedron.

In the section on the atomic nucleus structure, there is further evidence of tetrahedral structures. There are two clues to protons stacking in a tetrahedral pattern: 1) orbital shapes and 2) periodic sequence. Various tetrahedral structures are formed depending on the number of protons and neutrons, leading to the sequence of the Periodic Table of Elements.

From building particles like electrons and then protons, the tetrahedral pattern continues to atomic nuclei and finally to molecules.

 

Where is the Proof?

An equation for calculating standing wave energy – Longitudinal Energy Equation – was used to calculate particle energies from the lightest neutrino to the heavy Higgs boson.

  • Visual Proof of Electron
    • In 2008, the electron was filmed at Lund University in Sweden and shown to have a standing wave structure.
  • Relationship Between Particles and Atomic Elements (Linear Sequence) 
    • With a modification to the equation, all of the known particles fit reasonably into a linear sequence when mapping particle mass/energy versus particle number. This is the same process that was used for atomic elements and the creation of the Periodic Table of Elements.
    • In this sequence, the masses of leptons appear at the same magic number sequence (2, 8, 20, 28, 50) as atoms in the Periodic Table of Elements. Only #2 is missing in the sequence and may be an undiscovered neutrino.
    • The sequence starts with the neutrino at a particle count of 1. The largest particle (Higgs boson) has a particle count of 117. This is near the end of the known Periodic Table of Elements which ends at 118.
  • Relationship Between Particles and Photons
    • A relationship is established between particle energy and photons. Using the conservation of energy principle, mathematical explanations of the photons are simply a transfer of transverse wave energy to longitudinal wave energy and vice versa.
  • Relationship Between Particles and Forces
    • The Longitudinal Energy Equation is expanded from standing waves to traveling waves to derive the Force Equation for the electric force. Mass and the electric force come from the same wave energy but is a difference in standing wave vs traveling waves. This fundamental force is then derived to other forces as a change in wave form or amplitude. Calculations of the electric force prove this derivation.

 

Video Summary