## Background

Although the properties of electricity had been studied for centuries prior to its discovery, the electron was found by J.J. Thomson in 1897, before the discovery of the other components of the atom: proton and neutron. The electron is a stable particle and a key component of the atom. In addition to stabilizing the atom, it is responsible for binding atoms together to form molecules. It also plays a role in electricity and magnetism. Like other particles, it demonstrates wave-particle duality, acting as waves and also exhibiting particle behavior.

The electron is a member of the **lepton** family. There are six known leptons in the Standard Model: three are in the neutrino family and three in the electron family. The neutrinos (neutrino, muon neutrino and tau neutrino) have no electrical charge. The electrons (electron, muon electron and tau electron) have electrical charges. Unlike most particles, leptons can be found in nature. Electrons are found in atoms and are stable in free space, and its heavier cousin, the muon electron, can be found in Earth’s atmosphere during the decay of cosmic rays.

**Explanation**

In **energy wave theory**, the electron is formed from a collection of ten wave centers (neutrinos) – K=10. As this value of K appears in many equations related to the electron, it is given a special electron constant, K_{e}. Ten wave centers would likely form a three-level tetrahedron to be stable in three dimensions when responding to spherical, longitudinal waves. A potential view of the electron is below. The numbers 1, 3 and 6 represent the number of wave centers in each row of the structure – for a total of 10 wave centers.

**Electron** – Wave Centers

**Standing Wave Structure**

A collection of ten wave centers causes wave amplitude to increase. In addition, the number of wavelengths (n) also increases before before wave amplitude reaches a point where waves become traveling in form again. The particle radius is now ten electron wavelengths. The rest energy and mass of the electron is captured as the stored energy within this spherical boundary.

**Electron** **Particle – **Standing Waves of Energy

In 2008, scientists at Lund University in Sweden captured the electron for the first time ever in motion. The electron is shown to have standing wave characteristics, explaining its wave-particle duality. The electron is a particle that consists of standing waves and it has been recently captured on film. This is visual proof of the first attribute and it led to the creation of the Longitudinal Energy Equation.

**Electron** **Filmed in Motion – **2008 at Lund University

The second attribute can be deduced from the number of standing waves. In the derivation of the Longitudinal Energy Equation in *Particle Energy and Interaction*, a particle’s radius grows proportional to the number of wave centers at the core – this is the summation of wavelength counts (n) in the equation. In other words, the neutrino (K=1) has a radius of one wavelength and the electron (K=10) has a radius of ten *electron* wavelengths. Reviewing the Lund University electron, it appears to have 10 wavelengths.

**The electron is formed from standing waves of energy**

**Electron Spin**

The electron is known to have a spin, creating an magnetic charge. Its spin is referred to as 1/2, meaning that it takes two rotations for the electron to return to its original position. Other than a single wave center (neutrino), the electron is the most stable particle. With a three-dimensional, spherical wave, it would possibly be a tetrahedron shape (proposed above). In a tetrahedron,** wave centers would be equally spaced **at wavelengths causing stability in most wave directions such as:

The exception would be a wave center that is off node (standing wave node) in a particular direction of wave flow, as marked in red below:

This wave center would attempt to re-position on the node, therefore causing motion to the structure. When it reaches the node, it forces another wave center off node, which now re-positions itself. Therefore, the electron is constantly spinning and requiring energy as the wave centers react to minimize wave amplitude. The spin of a tetrahedral electron could very likely take two rotations, matching the 1/2 spin that is measured for the electron.

The energy loss that is required to keep the electron spinning is a loss in longitudinal wave amplitude and a difference between the in-wave and out-wave as pictured below. The spin of the electron becomes the magnetic force – a new transverse wave. This has been accurately modeled to be the magnetic moment of the electron (Bohr magneton). The energy loss also becomes the reason for gravity as it will be explained in that section.

**Electron and Positron Charge**

The positron is the antimatter equivalent of the electron. It also consists of ten waves centers as it has an identical rest energy and mass as the electron. The only difference between the electron and positron is the node position on the standing wave. There are only two nodes in a wavelength of a standing wave. Because wave centers are only stable at nodes, one node can be considered the position for standard matter (e.g. electron) and the other node position for antimatter (e.g. positron). Both are stable positions on the wave.

When standard matter (shown as Particle 1 below) interacts with antimatter (shown as Particle 2), the position on the wave causes destructive wave interference. The positron is 180 degrees out of phase on the wave from the electron and cancels wave amplitude.

Particles move to the point of minimal amplitude (Law #4 of Theory Laws), thus the motion depends on the constructive wave interference between two particles. In terms of electrons and positrons:

- Electron + Electron: Constructive wave interference causes greater amplitude between particles, forcing particles to repel
- Positron +Positron: Constructive wave interference causes greater amplitude between particles, forcing particles to repel
- Electron + Positron: Destructive wave interference causes reduced amplitude between particles, attracting the particles

**Charge is simply wave amplitude.** It is constructive or destructive depending on wave amplitudes of particles in proximity to others.

**Electrons as a Formation of Neutrinos**

The proof of the electron as a combination of neutrinos is mostly theoretical as a result of particle calculations. However, evidence in high-energy, electron-positron experiments do show that neutrinos are produced in addition to the expected photons. The electron is assumed to be an elementary particle, so the fact that it produces a lower-mass particle is significant.

## Proof

Proof of the energy wave explanation for the electron is the calculations, derivation and explanation of:

- Electric force –
*electron’s longitudinal, traveling wave force* - Magnetic force –
*electron’s transverse, magnetic force when in motion (electromagnetism)* - Bohr magneton derivation –
*electron’s magnetic moment at rest* - Visual Proof –
*see video above* - Electron energy and mass –
*see below*

**Electron Energy Calculation**

The rest energy of the electron is also a fundamental physical constant that has been calculated and placed in the constants section. It is calculated using the Longitudinal Energy Equation and wave constants, similar to the neutrino in the previous section and all other particles found in *Particle Energy and Interaction. *

K_{e }= 10

**Calculated Value: **8.1871E-14 joules (kg m^{2}/s^{2})

Electron Mass Calculation

The mass of the electron is also a fundamental physical constant that has been placed in the constants section. In Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation (E=mc^{2}), it is apparent that mass would be E/c^{2}, meaning that the mass equation is the Longitudinal Energy Equation without the speed of light constant in the equation. Not surprisingly, the equation has a c^{2} in the numerator of the equation. Therefore, mass is simply:

K_{e }= 10

**Calculated Value: **9.1094E-31 kg

Both energy and mass calculations show no difference (0.000%) to that level of digits from the CODATA value of the electron.