## Background

The **electron** is a stable particle and a key component of the atom. In addition to stabilizing the atom, it is responsible for binding atoms together to form molecules. It also plays a role in electricity and magnetism. Like other particles, it demonstrates wave-particle duality, acting as waves and also exhibiting particle behavior.

The electron is a member of the **lepton** family. There are six known leptons in the Standard Model: three are in the neutrino family and three in the electron family. The neutrinos (neutrino, muon neutrino and tau neutrino) have no electrical charge. The electrons (electron, muon electron and tau electron) have electrical charges. Unlike most particles, leptons can be found in nature. Electrons are found in atoms and are stable in free space, and its heavier cousin, the muon electron, can be found in Earth’s atmosphere during the decay of cosmic rays.

**Electron Energy & Mass**

The electron was calculated at a wave center count of K=10. As this value of K appears in many equations related to the electron, it is given a special electron constant, K_{e}. Ten wave centers (neutrinos) would likely form a three-level tetrahedron to be stable in three dimensions when responding to spherical, longitudinal waves. A potential view of the electron is below. The numbers 1, 3 and 6 represent the number of wave centers in each row of the structure – for a total of 10 wave centers.

**Calculating Electron Energy**

The rest energy of the electron is also a fundamental physical constant that has been calculated and placed in the constants section. It is calculated using the Longitudinal Energy Equation and wave constants, similar to the neutrino in the previous section and all other particles found in *Particle Energy and Interaction. *

**K _{e }= 10**

**Calculated Value: **8.1871E-14 joules (kg m^{2}/s^{2})

At K_{e} = 10, a value of 8.1871E-14 joules is calculated, which is no difference (0.000%) to that level of digits from the CODATA value of the electron in joules. *The electron is the most precise of any of the particles calculated by the wave equations. *

Calculating Electron Mass

The mass of the electron is also a fundamental physical constant that has been placed in the constants section. In Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation (E=mc^{2}), it is apparent that mass would be E/c^{2}, meaning that the mass equation is the Longitudinal Energy Equation without the speed of light constant in the equation. Not surprisingly, the equation has a c^{2} in the numerator of the equation. Therefore, mass is simply:

**Calculated Value: **9.1094E-31 kg

The calculated mass has no difference (0.000%) to that level of digits from the CODATA value of the electron in kilograms.

**Proof: Visual of the Electron**

There are two key attributes of the electron in energy wave theory that are described in the equations (above) for calculating the electron’s energy and mass:

- The electron is standing waves of energy, reflecting from the core.
- There are ten fundamental particles (neutrinos) in the core.

In 2008, scientists at Lund University in Sweden captured the electron for the first time ever in motion. The electron is shown to have standing wave characteristics, explaining its wave-particle duality. The electron is a particle that consists of standing waves and it has been recently captured on film. This is visual proof of the first attribute and it led to the creation of the Longitudinal Energy Equation.

The second attribute can be deduced from the number of standing waves. It is proposed that the electron has ten fundamental particles at its core (K=10). In the derivation of the Longitudinal Energy Equation in *Particle Energy and Interaction*, a particle’s radius grows proportional to the number of wave centers at the core. In other words, the neutrino (K=1) has a radius of one wavelength and the electron (K=1) has a radius of ten *electron* wavelengths.

Reviewing the Lund University electron, it appears to have a 10 wavelength radius as predicted by the Longitudinal Energy Wave Equation.

**The electron is formed from standing waves of energy.**

**Electron Spin**

The electron is known to have a spin, creating an electrical charge. It’s spin is referred to as 1/2, meaning that it takes two rotations for the electron to return to its original position.

Other than a single wave center (neutrino), the electron is the most stable particle. With a three-dimensional, spherical wave, it would possibly be a tetrahedron shape (proposed above). In a tetrahedron,** wave centers would be equally spaced **at wavelengths causing stability in most wave directions such as:

The exception would be a wave center that is off node (standing wave node) in a particular direction of wave flow, as marked in red below:

This wave center would attempt to re-position on the node, therefore causing motion to the structure. When it reaches the node, it forces another wave center off node, which now re-positions itself. Therefore, the electron is constantly spinning and requiring energy as the wave centers react to minimize wave amplitude. The spin of a tetrahedral electron could very likely take two rotations, matching the 1/2 spin that is measured for the electron.

The energy loss that is required to keep the electron spinning is a loss in wave amplitude and a difference between the in-wave and out-wave as pictured below. The spin of the electron becomes the magnetic force – a new transverse wave. This has been accurately modeled to be the magnetic moment of the electron (Bohr magneton). The energy loss also becomes the reason for gravity as it will be explained in that section.