## Photon Wavelengths

**Hydrogen Wavelengths (Ionization)
**Using the Transverse Wavelength Equation, the wavelengths of photons absorbed during hydrogen ionization were calculated for the ground state and each of the excited states (orbitals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). Calculations are compared to measured results for photons wavelengths of hydrogen.

**Hydrogen Wavelengths (Shell Transition)
**Using the Transverse Wavelength Equation, the wavelengths of photons emitted during hydrogen for an electron transitioning from an excited state (orbitals 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) to the second (2) orbital. Calculations are compared to measured results for photons wavelengths of hydrogen. For example, as the electron transitions from the 3s orbital to 2s orbital (3->2) it emits a photon calculated to be 6.56E-07 meters.

## Photon Energy

The energy of a photon that is absorbed or emitted by any atom can be calculated using the Transverse Energy Equation, along with 1) the distance and 2) constructive/destructive wave interference (amplitude factor) on an electron transitioning orbitals in an atom. These two variables are found in the tables from the summary results in the calculations of atoms and then used with the Transverse Energy Equation.

More than 150 calculations are compared to measured results of photon energies required for ionization. An explanation is provided in the Atomic Orbitals paper for the variation of calculations versus measured results. Ionization energies were calculated in **Mj per mole.**

**Ionization Energy of the First (Outermost) Electron – Neutral Element**

**Ionization Energy of the 1s Electron – Neutral Element (from Spectroscopy Experiments)**

A pattern emerges for the first orbital of the elements from hydrogen to calcium that allow a simplified method reducing two variables to one. In these calculations, the Amplitude Factor Equation – 1s Orbital Ionization is used to solve one variable without knowing orbital distance. Instead, the Bohr radius is used as the orbital distance when this equation is used. *This equation only applies to the 1s orbital. *

**Ionization Energy of 1s ^{1} Electron – Ionized Element**

**Ionization Energy of 1s ^{2} Electron – Ionized Element**

**Ionization Energy of 2s and 2p Electrons – Ionized Element**

The charts for the 2s and 2p electron ionization energies are summarized quickly below, but the details can be found in the Atomic Orbitals paper.

**Source Data: **All graphs shown here, and the calculations for all of the photon wavelengths and ionization energies can be found in the downloadable spreadsheet. Further information on the derivation of the equations and how to replicate them are in the Particle Energy and Interaction and Atomic Orbitals papers.