## Background

Named after Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, this constant is the electric force constant. When charged particles interact, a force repels or attracts the particles. For example, two electrons will repel and travel in opposite directions; a proton and electron will be attracted to each other. The force is modeled based on the charge and distance, and Coulomb’s constant (k) is known as a proportionality constant in the equation F=k qq/r^{2}.

See also: electric constant, magnetic constant

## Energy Wave Constants – Equivalent

The following is the representation of this fundamental physical constant expressed in energy wave theory. Using energy wave constants, its value was calculated and shown to match the known value in the Summary of Calculations table.

### Coulomb’s Constant

Coulomb’s constant (k) is derived from the Force Equation. It is the combination of wave constants in the equation as only amplitude and distance are variables in the Force Equation for electromagnetism, thus it is shown as one constant in current physics equations. In reality, it is a combination of wave constants. The variable that affects force is amplitude (because wave centers move to minimize amplitude), and since longitudinal amplitude decreases with the square of distance, it is also seen in the equation.

The Force Equation is essentially the Longitudinal Energy Equation (particle energy) multiplied by the distance to the particle’s radius where standing waves convert to traveling waves (at K^{2 }λ_{l}). In short, it is the energy that is required to move the wave centers at the core of the particle to the particle’s edge (radius), where it would transition from potential energy to kinetic energy. The distance, r^{2}, appears because of the effect of the amplitude from the second object exerting the force on the first object. This is explained in great detail in the *Forces* paper.

The complete derivation of this constant is available in the Fundamental Physical Constants paper.

## Units

The equation for Coulomb’s constant in energy wave theory has units that are based in kg * m/s^{2}. By comparison Coulomb’s constant (k) is measured in N * m^{2}/C^{2}. However, in wave theory, C (Coulombs) are measured in m (meters) as charge is based on amplitude. N (Newtons) can be expressed in kg * m/s^{2}, so when N is expanded and C is represented by meters, it resolves to the correct units expected for the Coulomb constant. The derivation of units from the current Coulomb constant to the wave theory version is as follows: