## Explanation

Named after Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, this constant is the electric force constant. When charged particles interact, a force repels or attracts the particles. For example, two electrons will repel and travel in opposite directions; a proton and electron will be attracted to each other. The force is modeled based on the charge and distance, and Coulomb’s constant (k) is known as a proportionality constant in the equation F=k qq/r^{2}.

The next figure illustrates wave motion in the universe. In the absence of any particles, there would still be energy as a result of this motion. The force is Coulomb’s constant, i.e. F=k_{e}. In the latter part of this page, the Coulomb constant is derived to be units of a force when charge (Coulombs) is replaced by wave amplitude (meters), proving that it is indeed a force.

When particles are present, wave amplitude changes as a result of wave interference between particles. Wave amplitude declines with distance, therefore the force now becomes F=k_{e}(q_{1}q_{2}/r^{2}), where the variables are separated by parentheses. Note that the variables become a dimensionless ratio when charge is replaced with wave amplitude.

See also: electric constant, magnetic constant

## Derivation – Coulomb’s Constant

Coulomb’s constant (k) is derived in the *Forces *paper, and a summary is found on this site at F=kqq/r^{2}. It is the combination of constants in a wave equation, where the remaining variables are wave amplitude and distance. In wave theory, waves travel through a medium with a universal wavelength (λ_{l}), amplitude (A_{l}) and speed (c), responsible for creating particle energy/mass and forces. There is a universal force as a result of this motion, but only detectable when there is a change. The universal force is the Coulomb constant.

## Classical Constant Form |
## Wave Constant Form |

Using classical constants | Using energy wave constants |

**Calculated Value**: 8.9876E+9

**Difference from CODATA:** 0.000%

**Calculated Units**: kg m / s^{2}

**G-Factor: **g_{λ}^{ }g_{A}^{2}

## Units

The equation for Coulomb’s constant in energy wave theory has units that are based in kg * m/s^{2}. By comparison Coulomb’s constant (k) is measured in N * m^{2}/C^{2}. However, in wave theory, C (Coulombs) are measured in m (meters) as charge is based on amplitude. N (Newtons) can be expressed in kg * m/s^{2}, so when N is expanded and C is represented by meters, it resolves to the correct units expected for the Coulomb constant. The derivation of units from the current Coulomb constant to the wave theory version is as follows:

Its value was calculated and shown to match the known value in the Summary of Calculations table. *The derivation of this constant is available in the Fundamental Physical Constants paper.*