## Background

The elementary charge is the electric charge carried by a single electron or a single proton.

## Energy Wave Constants – Equivalent

The following is the representation of this fundamental physical constant expressed in energy wave theory. Using energy wave constants, its value was calculated and shown to match the known value in the Summary of Calculations table.

### Elementary Charge

The elementary charge was derived from known physics equations relating it to the Planck charge and the square root of the fine structure constant. Both of these constants can be replaced with energy wave constants from values derived on this site, and the result of the derivation is below. It is another equation that appears to be complex until related to the fine structure constant.

**Calculated Value**: 1.6022E-19

**Difference from CODATA:** 0.000%

**Calculated Units**: m

** Note: **Units are in meters, not Coulombs (C), as wave theory measures charge based on amplitude, which is in meters.

The complete derivation of this constant is available in the Fundamental Physical Constants paper.

## Alternative Derivation

An alternative version after substituting for δ_{Ge }and O_{e}.

## Relationship to the Fine Structure Constant

Some of the derivations of the wave energy equations appear to be complex, yet their calculations match the known CODATA value. This is one of the energy wave constants that has a connection to the fine structure constant that simplifies the equation and provides some meaning to the constant itself.

The equation below shows the ratio of the elementary charge to the square of the fine structure constant, becoming the amplitude known as Planck charge. This is the reverse of the derivation of the elementary charge, but is shown for completeness as another fundamental physical constant that is related to and simplified by the fine structure constant.