## Explanation

The elementary charge is the electric charge carried by a single electron or a single proton. Like the Planck charge, it is an initial displacement of a *granule* from equilibrium – a harmonic motion that appears as waves – and measured correctly as a distance (SI unit of meters). Unlike the Planck charge, the elementary charge is the displacement of granules spreading spherically as they transfer energy to a greater number of granules in the lattice, losing wave amplitude proportional to the distance from the *wave center*. Wave amplitude continues to decrease from the electron’s core with each wavelength, transitioning from standing waves to traveling waves at the electron’s classical radius. As traveling waves, granule motion may constructively or destructively interfere with granules traveling in the opposite direction, ultimately creating a force that is known as the electric force when reaching another particle.

See also: Planck charge

## Derivation – Elementary Charge

In classical constant format, the elementary charge is derived from the Planck charge and the square root of the fine structure constant. Both of these constants can be replaced with energy wave constants from values derived on this site, and the result of the wave constant derivation is shown below. In wave constant form, the units resolve correctly to be a distance (wave amplitude). This simple change from charge (Coulombs) to distance (meters) allows mass and charge equations to be unified.

## Classical Constant Form |
## Wave Constant Form |

Using classical constants | Using energy wave constants |

**Calculated Value**: 1.6022E-19

**Difference from CODATA:** 0.000%

**Calculated Units**: m

**G-Factor: **g_{A}^{-1}

** Note: **Units are in meters, not Coulombs (C), as wave theory measures charge based on amplitude, which is in meters.

Its value was calculated and shown to match the known value in the Summary of Calculations table. *The derivation of this constant is available in the Fundamental Physical Constants paper.*