## Explanation

The fine structure constant appears in many physics equations and is an essential part of many calculations. In addition to appearing in orbital and photon calculations using energy wave theory, it is also seen as the coupling constant in the strong force.

In the proposed structure of the proton, it is proposed that highly energetic electrons are quarks. The electron requires energy to spin, converting in-wave energy to both a longitudinal and transverse (spin) out-wave. This conversion factor is the fine structure constant. In a standalone electron, in-wave amplitude (Planck charge) is reflected with a decreased longitudinal out-wave amplitude (elementary charge) for the electric force. In the proposed electron/quark model, its fast spin reflects all of its energy, with an out-wave amplitude of Planck charge for the strong force. Thus, the strong force is a factor of the fine structure greater than the electric force.

## Derivation – Fine Structure Constant

In modern physics, the fine structure constant is typically derived as the elementary charge squared divided by the Planck charge squared. However, this is simply expressing that the elementary charge and the Planck charge are both wave amplitudes, but their propagation is different. The elementary charge propagates spherically; the Planck charge along a single dimension.

The fine structure constant can be derived simply as a ratio of geometries, expressed with pi (π). It is shown in classical and wave constant form below. The complete derivation of the coupling constant and other coupling constants are provided in the page for the unification of forces.

## Classical Constant Form |
## Wave Constant Form |

Using classical constants | Using energy wave constants |

**Calculated Value: **7.2974E-3

**Difference from CODATA:** 0.000%

**Calculated Units**: None (*dimensionless)*

The fine structure constant’s value was calculated and shown to match the known value in the Summary of Calculations table. *The derivation of this constant is available in the Fundamental Physical Constants paper.*