## Background

The fine structure constant appears in many physics equations and is an essential part of many calculations. In addition to appearing in orbital and photon calculations using energy wave theory, it is also seen as the coupling constant in the strong force, electromagnetic force and gravity.

It is perhaps the most important of the constants calculated in energy wave theory as it is not only used in calculations, but helps to resolve many complex equations to be simpler, and give potential meaning to the equations.

## Energy Wave Constants – Equivalent

The following is the representation of this fundamental physical constant expressed in energy wave theory. Using energy wave constants, its value was calculated and shown to match the known value in the Summary of Calculations table.

### Fine Structure Constant

In wave theory, the fine structure constant is based on resonance when comparing the rest energy of the electron (E_{e}) to resonance energy (E_{resonance}).

The rest energy of the electron is derived on this site. A re-written form of the same equation is shown below.

The resonance energy is based on the density of the aether and speed of light (squared).

Substituting both energies into the original equation for the fine structure constant. Then simplify the equation and the result is the fine structure constant.

**Calculated Value: **7.2974E-3

**Difference from CODATA:** 0.000%

**Calculated Units**: None (*dimensionless)*

## Alternative Derivation

An alternative version of the fine structure constant was derived from a known calculation from fundamental physical constants. This further validates the derivations of fundamental physical constants in terms of wave constants. The derivation is different than above, but the value is exactly the same. The fine structure constant from a known physics derivation:

And after replacement of the elementary charge, electric constant and Planck constant, all of which are found here on this site in complete wave constants form. After substituting and simplifying an alternative form of the fine structure constant is found. When substituting for O_{e}, the derivation is exactly the same as the first one (above).

The complete derivation of this constant is available in the Fundamental Physical Constants paper.