## Explanation

The fine structure constant appears in many physics equations and is an essential part of many calculations. In addition to appearing in orbital and photon calculations using energy wave theory, it is also seen as the coupling constant in the strong force.

In the proposed structure of the proton, it is proposed that highly energetic electrons are quarks. The energy to spin is consumed from longitudinal in-waves, and the increase in spin creates a transverse wave that is known as the gluon. The fine structure is the wave amplitude reduction ratio of the longitudinal wave; the inverse of the fine structure is the wave amplitude increase ratio of the transverse wave – responsible for the strong force. It is expressed in wave equation format below as the decrease in amplitude per wavelength over 3π.

## Derivation – Fine Structure Constant

The fine structure constant is classically derived as the elementary charge squared divided by the Planck charge squared. In wave theory, it is derived from the Longitudinal Energy Equation. The inverse of the fine structure constant (which is the increased amplitude for the strong force) has similarities to the coupling constants for gravity, as they are all 1/3π.

## Classical Constant Form |
## Wave Constant Form |

Using classical constants | Using energy wave constants |

**Calculated Value: **7.2974E-3

**Difference from CODATA:** 0.000%

**Calculated Units**: None (*dimensionless)*

Its value was calculated and shown to match the known value in the Summary of Calculations table. *The derivation of this constant is available in the Fundamental Physical Constants paper.*