## Background

The proton radius is the distance from the proton’s center to the edge of the proton.

## Energy Wave Constants – Equivalent

The following is the representation of this fundamental physical constant expressed in energy wave theory. Using energy wave constants, its value was calculated and shown to match the known value in the Summary of Calculations table.

### Proton Radius

In energy wave theory, the proton has a different structure than the currently accepted structure consisting of three quarks. Instead, the proton radius is based on four electrons in a tetrahedral shape. At a separation distance of one electron wavelength (Kλ_{l}), it forms a strong bond (gluons) due to constructive wave interference of four electrons. This creates a new amplitude and core, explaining why electrons are not repelled at this distance (they form a new core). The original electrons lose their individual standing waves as they form a new particle. The original radius of K^{2}λ_{l} meters is now only one-electron wavelength Kλ_{l} meters. Kλ_{l} is the electron core radius.

The radius to the circumpshere of a tetrahedral shape is used below in the calculation (the calculation of radius is the square root of 3/8 * length of base). At the base of one edge of the tetrahedron are two electrons. They both have a radius of Kλ_{l}, or 2 Kλ_{l} in diameter. Two electrons with this diameter, separated by one electron wavelength is: 2Kλ + 2Kλ + Kλ, = 5Kλ meters in length for the base of the tetrahedron.

The complete derivation of this constant is available in the Fundamental Physical Constants paper.

** Note:** This is one constant that exceeds an acceptable difference between the calculated value and the CODATA value. No modifier has been used in the calculation of the proton. Its value differs from the CODATA value of 8.7516E-16, but the radius of the proton is subject to debate. Various experiments have a range of 8.4E-16 to 8.7E-16 m.