# Spacetime

## What is a Spacetime?

Spacetime is a model of the universe that takes the three spatial dimensions of space and merges it with the dimension of time for a four-dimensional continuum.  Before 1905 and Albert Einstein’s special relativity, space and time were believed to be independent of each other.  Einstein linked the two together with relativity theory.

The position of any object in the universe can be described by three numbers in a coordinate system, such as x, y and z in Cartesian coordinates. Its position changes based on time (t), so to describe the position of an object at any time requires the four dimensions of spacetime. However, the fusing of spacetime together has effects on an object that is in motion, especially at incredibly high speeds approaching the speed of light. Amongst other strange effects, Einstein described an object’s motion in spacetime with phenomena like time dilation and length contraction. In the latter, an object shrinks in size as its speed increases. Einstein also described gravity as the warping of spacetime. Credit: Tokamac from Wikimedia Commons

### Questions

• How does spacetime bend and contort to cause gravity?
• How can energy and forces be transferred through the vacuum of spacetime?
• Why do particles and photons have wave-like properties if there is no substance to “wave” in spacetime?

## Explanation

In energy wave theory, spacetime is a physical substance that occupies the universe, as a medium that allows the transfer of energy of its components. It is more commonly referred to as the aether, which was broadly accepted within the physics community until the late 1800s when the Michelson-Morley experiment failed to detect an aether. Einstein, and others that followed in the 1900s, have used the term spacetime.

If spacetime is considered to be a structure that curves, the structure that is curving must be defined.  Similarly, if particles and photons are considered to be wave-like, the structure that is waving must be defined.  Here, the structure of spacetime at the smallest of levels – the quintessence of the universe – is proposed to be a material in a lattice structure of repeating unit cells, where each of the cells contain granules that vibrate in harmonic motion. Spacetime Lattice of Granules (left); Granules in Motion (right)

### Spacetime Lattice Unit Cell

The lattice structure is proposed to be a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, similar to a formation commonly seen in molecules. It is evidence of nature repeating itself. A unit cell of this lattice is illustrated below. The Planck constants are found naturally in the mathematics of equations that represent a single unit cell, which explains why the Planck constants appear in many physics equations. Throughout energy wave theory, forces, photon energy and the energy of the electron can be derived and explained using only five total constants – four of these are Planck constants. Three of these constants (Planck length, Planck mass and Planck charge) are shown in the next figure to describe a unit cell of the spacetime lattice.  It will also be shown that a unit cell exhibits behavior similar to a spring-mass system, and as a result, can be calculated using classical mechanics. Unit Cell of Spacetime Lattice

### Classical Mechanics Model

The representation of a unit cell as a spring-mass system allows equations to be developed using classical mechanics, without the need for a second, complex branch of quantum mechanics. It will be shown that the energy of the spring-mass system can be derived to the Coulomb energy, which at a given distance is the Coulomb force (electric force). An illustration of granules converging on a wave center (blue) is shown in the next figure on the left; it is reflected as expands out on the right in the next figure. ### Harmonic Motion & Waves

A granule in a lattice that is displaced from equilibrium and returns to its original position experiences harmonic motion. Like a mass at the end of a spring in motion, its position over time can be described by a sinusoidal wave (bottom of next figure). When multiple masses in a spring-mass system are linked, such as the spacetime lattice, these waves are constructive or destructive depending on the phase of the wave. Wave interference was described on a previous page, but here the mechanism for this interference can now be described in more detail based on the motion of granules in a spacetime lattice.

Constructive Waves – Two or more granules in motion in the same direction will transfer a greater amount of energy to the next granule in the system.  This causes greater displacement of the granule (represented as greater wave amplitude in the sinusoidal wave representation in the figure).

Destructive Waves – Two or more granules in motion in the opposite direction may cancel energy, causing little to no displacement of the next granule linked in the system (represented as reduced wave amplitude in the sinusoidal wave representation in the figure – the flat black line in the bottom right). A chain of granules, transferring energy from one to the next, is responsible for a particle’s energy/mass, and for the forces that act upon such particles. As an example, a chain of unit cells in the spacetime lattice is shown between a proton and electron. It is the motion of each of these granules that is the cause of their “charge” and the effect on the opposite particle’s motion. The latter motion depends on the particle’s position with respective to wave phase, such that the wave interference between two particles is either constructive or destructive, repelling or attracting another particle.  For a single proton and electron (hydrogen), the number of unit cells was found to be Avogadro’s number. ## Where is the Proof?

The proof of the spacetime lattice structure is found in:

Further proof is anticipated with a computer simulation of particle and atom creation using this model and only classical mechanics equations. For more information, visit the EWT Project.