# Units

## Background

The SI unit system is the most widely used system of measurements. There are currently seven base SI units to measure time (seconds – s), length, (meters – m), mass (kilograms – kg), electric current (amperes – A), temperature (kelvin – K), the amount of a substance (mole – mol) and luminous intensity (candela – cd). ## Explanation

In energy wave theory, there are only three base units required. The explanation and removal of one of the units has a profound impact on the ultimate simplicity of the equations in EWT.  The units that are removed are:

• Mole is a dimensionless unit, as it is an amount (count) of a substance
• Kelvin is the same units as energy, as it is the average kinetic energy of particles
• Candela is a measurement of energy, as it is the energy of photons per angle unit
• Amperes is the velocity of particles like electrons, as it is measured as the flow of electric current

It is amperes that is the biggest source of confusion. It is defined as a charge (Coulombs) per second, describing current. But it is the charge unit of Coulombs that has led to a separate set of equations using electromagnetism compared to equations using mass, simply because the units don’t align between these equations. When charge (Coulombs) is replaced with wave amplitude, which is granule displacement (meters), then charge and mass equations align.

### Simplified Units – kg, m, s

The three units that are used to describe particles, photons, atoms and their forces are: mass (kg), length (m) and time (s).  This forms the simplified kg/m/s unit system.  In the geometry of the spacetime lattice, it was found that the values that resolve the equations correctly are the same values that Max Planck found naturally in physics equations. A center granule is represented by a mass of Planck mass (mP), a radius of Planck length (lP), and when in motion at the speed of light, it takes Planck time (tP) to travel the radius.  The value of Planck mass is deceiving because it is significantly larger than the mass of the electron or proton, yet it occupies a much smaller space.  It will be shown that the energy from this mass is only recognized when a granule is in motion. Classical Derivations – All equations and all of the electron-based fundamental physical constants are derived from only five classical constants (three of these are the base units)*:

1. Planck mass (kg)
2. Planck length (m)
3. Planck time (s)
4. Planck charge (m)

Wave Derivations – Similarly, all equations and all fundamental physical constants on this site can be derived in an alternative wave constant format with five constants.* This format better represents the wave behavior of particles and can derive particle energies in greater detail than classical constants.  The five wave constants are:

1. Wavelength (m)
2. Wave amplitude (m)
3. Wave speed (m/s)
4. Density (kg/m3)
5. Electron wave center count (dimensionless)

* Excludes mathematical constants

### Constant Relationships

In classical form, there are three basic Planck units (kg, m, s).  It requires at least two constants to form the relationship between these three.  Length can be related to time as a velocity (meters per second).  And length can be related to mass as a linear density (kilograms per meter). This forms two of the most important constants. They are the unit relationships:

Speed of Light (c) – The speed of light has units of meters per second. It is the Planck length (lP) per Planck time (tP): Magnetic Constant (μ0) – The magnetic constant has units of kilograms per meter when the unit for charge (Coulombs) is replaced with the unit for length (meters), because charge is wave amplitude. It is the Planck mass (mP) per Planck length (lP) multiplied by a geometric ratio (⍺1A) described in the Geometry of Spacetime paper. 