Atom Formation

The atom, consisting of protons and neutrons at its core, and surrounded by electrons in its orbitals, is the building block of molecules. The nucleus and the creation of the proton and neutron is the focus of this section to explain the mystery of how they were created.

Hints of the proton’s structure is apparent in the structure of the Periodic Table of Elements. As it will be shown in this section, the proton can be created from simple particles that exist throughout the universe – electrons and positrons.  Even electrons and positrons themselves are built from a fundamental particle, the neutrino, likely in a tetrahedral structure.  Everything in nature is ultimately built from a fundamental particle which is nothing more than a centerpoint for speherical waves.

Tetrahedrons are proposed as the geometric structure for the atom. This would allow tetrahedral stacking in the nucleus of the atom; a geometric arrangement which creates platonic solids with tetrahedrons until a cube is eventually formed as the ultimate structure of the nucleus.

It begins with a proton that consists of four electrons at the vertices of the tetrahedron. This electron pairing is possible because of the high speeds at which they were traveling shortly after the Big Bang. We don’t see these today. But two electrons pairing is not the proton or the neutron. When they pair together, the axial line is one dimensional. It’s simple, and nature likes simple, but it’s not enough for a three dimensional proton. It needs to be stable in three dimensions to survive more than 14 billion years. And that’s exactly what protons and neutrons are. Even though protons and neutrons can change into each other through the decay process – explained in the Beta Decay section – their basic structure is a remnant of the early universe, billions and billions of years ago.

In the illustration below, two electrons are pushed to the required distance X to lock their standing waves. When a third electron is added, also at the same distance X, it forms an equilateral triangle. It now has three electrons in a two-dimensional plane. When a fourth electron is added, also at distance X from all three of the other electrons, we have a three dimensional object – a tetrahedron. It’s the simplest geometrical formation to get to a stable three-dimensional object.

Proton Structure

A proton later captures a positron that resides in the center, attracted to the vertices, but equally space such that it resides directly at the core. Protons can later become neutrons during the beta decay process.

Protons and neutrons may stack tetrahedrons together in a nucleus such as the illustration below. Electrons at the vertices of these tetrahedrons will repel orbiting electrons, such that they will never get pulled into the nucleus. But there are gaps from destructive wave interference that leave a convenient place for electrons to reside in orbit, pulled in by the strength of the positron inside the proton.

Tetrahedral Stacking

Credit: University of Cambridge





Gluon Energy – Four Kinetic Particle Energies

The first evidence of the proton consisting of four electrons was worked out in the Matter section.  Refer to that section for the detailed explanation and math of the proton structure.  As a quick recap, the kinetic energy of four electrons at two trillion degrees kelvin becomes the mass of the proton when the electrons lock in phase and their kinetic energy becomes potential energy (gluons).  At these temperatures, they would have been formed shortly after the Big Bang.  This temperature has recently been confirmed in a recent experiment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory – at two trillion degrees the proton breaks apart.  Gluons are simply potential energy converted from kinetic energy as electrons lock their standing waves; quarks are electrons.

Note, a positron is captured later in the proton’s core and explained in the Beta Decay section.


Three Quarks

The second evidence of the proton’s structure is its three quarks which are found in particle accelerator experiments. The proton is known to consist of three quarks. According to the Standard Model the proton has two up quarks and a down quark. This can be explained by the proposed structure.

If a proton contains four electrons at the vertices and a positron at its core, there are five total particles. Further, assume two of the four electrons have opposite spins from the other two (commonly seen in atomic orbitals). When the proton breaks apart in these experiments, the positron and electron would immediately annihilate. This leaves two electrons of the same spin, and one electron of an opposite spin. Three quarks as we see them (two up quarks and one down quark).


Periodic Table Structure

The third evidence of the tetrahedral structure of the proton is the Periodic Table and how protons and neutrons assemble to create atomic elements. The sequence of the Periodic Table of Elements can be explained by tetrahedral stacking – when tetrahedrons stack together to create new formations.

Jozsef Garai restructured the Periodic Table based on the sequence 2, 8, 18, 32 in Mathematical Formulas Describing the Sequences of the Periodic Table paper, in which he proposed a tetrahedral structure. The Periodic Table can be redesigned as follows to match this sequence.

Garai Table

Credit: Jozsef Garai


Xavier Borg outlines this same sequence (2, 8, 18, 32) in his works on The sequence fills orbitals in order: s, p, d, f.


Periodic Table Sequence

Credit: Xavier Borg


This sequence of electrons filling orbitals in the Periodic Table can be expressed as tetrahedrons, and platonic solids that are formed from tetrahedrons – tetrahedral stacking.   It is nature completing a structure to become a stable cube.  The sequence is highlighted again as formations of tetrahedrons: from tetrahedron to a dual tetrahedron to an octahedron and finally a cube.

Orbitals s, p, d and f are based on the number of inscribed tetrahedrons in the platonic solid (2x the number of tetrahedrons). The last column is the available number of electrons for the solid.  The sequence 2, 10, 18, 36, 54, 86, 118 are the noble gases in the Periodic Table. A completed cube ends at 118, the largest known atomic element.


Tetrahedral Sequence

Credit: Xavier Borg