Beta Decay

In the Atom Formation section, the proton and neutron are described as the formation of a tetrahedron with electrons (or positrons for the anti-proton) at the vertices of the tetrahedron.  This section describes the core of these particles and the difference between them that leads to a positive charge in a proton and a neutral charge in the neutron.

Inside the proton’s structure is a positron (e+) and a neutrino (v).  The positron is responsible for the positive charge of the proton.  Together, with the neutrino, they form a W+ boson.


The neutron is very similar, with the same structure formed in a tetrahedral shape.  But at its core is a W+ boson and a W boson.  The W boson consists of an electron and an antineutrino.  Similar to annihilation, these particles at the core have destructive waves that cancel such that its wave combination has zero amplitude.  It is a neutral particle.



A neutron may decay to a proton known as Beta Decay.  Or a proton can convert to a neutron with sufficient energy, such as the process in our Sun.



The evidence for this structure is in the beta decay process, long known and understood, but with a new explanation.  The Feynman diagram for this process is below.  The neutron ejects a W boson, which then immediately decays to an electron and antineutrino.  The neutron becomes a proton.


Feynman Diagram Beta Decay

Feynman Diagram – Beta Decay


If the neutron consists of both a W+ boson and a W boson, it is validated in the decay process.  Upon decay, it loses the W boson.  Then, the W boson immediately decays to its parts, the electron and antineutrino.  What’s left?  The W+ boson, which is the proton.  The W+ boson is the positron and neutrino at the core of the tetrahedron.