In an atom, electrons balance positively charged protons with their negative charge, remaining in orbitals around the nucleus. Electrons stay in these orbitals, in some ways like planets orbiting the Sun, never collapsing into the nucleus. Electrons are attracted to the proton yet they do not annihilate like a positron-electron combination would do.

If atomic formation is based on a proton structure of electrons at the vertices of a tetrahedron and a positron at its core, orbitals can be explained. The orbiting electron is both pushed (by the electrons in the proton structure) and pulled (by the positron). Due to destructive wave interference from the electrons at the vertices of the tetrahedron, there are areas where waves cancel and provide gaps at distances from the nucleus. These are convenient gaps where the electron can reside without being pushed by the electrons in the nucleus – the orbitals.  Electrons are pulled into these orbitals by the positron in the core of the proton.

Furthermore, since the nucleus of an atom consists of protons and neutrons which stack to form the nucleus, the wave pattern changes with each structure, thus changing orbitals and gaps where electrons may reside.


Orbitals - Wave cancellation

Credit: Gabriel LaFreniere


This occurs in each atom. Waves cancel from the nucleus and provide gaps for electrons which can be shared between atoms. This allows molecules to be formed.


Molecular bonding

Credit: Gabriel LaFreniere






Hydrogen Orbitals

Hydrogen’s orbitals can be calculated with the following Hydrogen Orbital Equation.  This calculates the number of longitudinal wavelengths (n) from the core of the nucleus to each orbital (N). The well known physics constant – α (fine structure constant) – is used in the calculation.

Orbital Equation


  • n – number of wavelengths from particle core
  • N – orbitals or principle quantum number
  • K = 10 for the electron
  • α = Fine Structure Constant = 7.29735257 x 10-3


While this in itself is not proof of the above equation, nor that waves are destructive creating gaps, it will be shown in the ionization of Hydrogen and He to Ca Elements sections that these orbitals match spectral analysis for energies and wavelengths seen when electrons change orbitals.

Example calculations are as follows: nN1 is the number of wavelengths to the 1s orbital (N1).

Orbital Eq1


Orbital Eq2


And for the 2s orbital (N2):Orbital Eq3


Orbitals Eq4


The first nine potential orbitals for hydrogen have been calculated and placed in the table below, ranging from 187,789 wavelengths for the first orbital to 15,210,881 wavelengths for the ninth orbital. These are the distances, in wavelengths from the particle core, where the proton’s waves are destructive and leave gaps in the orbit for electrons to reside.


Hydrogen Orbitals in Wavelengths

Hydrogen Orbitals in Wavelengths