The electron is a very stable particle, and currently thought to be its own, indivisible particle. However, in wave theory, it can be modeled as a standing wave of energy, as in-waves and out-waves that combine to create standing waves. Furthermore, if the neutrino is the fundamental particle, then the electron must be built from neutrinos. In this model, the electron can be built from a combination of ten neutrinos at equal wavelengths.

Dr. Milo Wolff was the first to model the electron as a spherical standing wave system, with a full wavelength core, resulting in a wave phase shift in the core of the electron (refer to the original diagram from Dr. Wolff in *Beyond the Point Particle – A Wave Structure for the Electron). *The combination of neutrinos at the core may be the cause of the full wavelength core and phase shift. A tetrahedron geometry of ten neutrinos is one possible geometric structure that would give it stability and this core phase shift feature.

## Evidence

**Longitudinal Energy Equation**

The detailed mass and energy of the electron was calculated in the Electron Mass section. The Longitudinal Energy equation and wave constants were used for the calculation.

At K=10 (ten neutrinos in the core), the rest energy of the electron is correctly derived. **8.18 x 10 ^{-14} joules**.

**Calculated Value: **8.1871E-14 joules (kg m^{2}/s^{2})

**Difference from CODATA Value:** 0.000%

*Note that in the Longitudinal Energy equation, n=K when calculating the energy of the particle in all of its standing wave shells (n). n is the wavelength radius from the core of the particle, where standing waves convert to traveling waves. Particle radius is proportional to amplitude in the wave equation. For the electron, the particle radius is n=10 (ten standing wavelength radius from the particle core).*

**Gabriel LaFreniere Electron Simulations
**

Gabriel LaFreniere has modeled the electron, expanding on Dr. Milo Wolff’s work. Spherical in-waves converge on the particle core (image left). In reality, this is most likely the Huygens principle of multiple wavelets producing a wavefront. A particle, like the electron, reflects these waves to produce spherical out-waves at the same frequency as the in-waves (image right).

The combination of these in-waves and out-waves combine to form a standing wave.

Standing waves cannot keep this form for infinity. They eventually break down to traveling waves. The particle can be seen with a defined radius. Its mass and energy are the sum of the standing waves.

Gabriel LaFreniere’s wave is a spherical sine wave, again showing the full wavelength core responsible for the wave phase shift, first predicted by Dr. Milo Woff.

**Lund University – Filming the Electron
**

In 2008, scientists at Lund University in Sweden captured the electron for the first time ever in motion. The electron is shown to have standing wave characteristics.

Furthermore, the Lund University electron appears to have a 10 wavelength radius from the particle core, consistent with the Longitudinal Energy equation (K=10; n=10) and calculation of Electron mass. In the equation, n is the number of wavelengths from the particle core.

**The electron is formed from standing waves of energy.**