Quark Confinement


The current explanation of the proton is that it is composed of particles known as quarks. In most experiments, the proton is found to have three quarks, although more exotic arrangements of four and five quarks have also been found. The latter five quark arrangement was discovered in 2003 and coined the pentaquark, which consists of four quarks and an anti-quark.

A quark is never in isolation, meaning it can never be found alone (one quark). It may be found in pairs (two or more quarks), in the case of mesons. Or, as described above, three quarks are typically found when protons are smashed together in particle accelerators. But a single quark is never found alone. Instead, when particles are smashed together and quarks are detected, they are described like ends of rubber bands that stretch, but eventually pull quarks back together again. This is known as quark confinement.

Quark confinement



A new model of the proton was created for energy wave theory based on a pentaquark arrangement: four quarks and an anti-quark. In fact these quarks may be highly-energetic electrons as determined by the wave equations, and the anti-quark may be a positron. This model matches beta decay experiments explained in the weak force section and also outlined in the Forces paper. Other proof of the pentaquark model was the calculation of the proton radius. Here, the common observations from proton collision experiments will be explained.  

The proposed structure of the proton used to calculate the proton radius is based on a tetrahedral arrangement of known fundamental particles (electrons, positrons, neutrinos), all of which are found in protons and neutrons when they naturally decay (beta decay).


Proposed Proton Model


First, the standard proton collision experiment needs to be explained to match the findings where three quarks are discovered within the proton structure. In the typical particle collision with the proton, three quarks are detected. The figure below describes how another particle would affect the proton structure if it consists of four electrons and one positron. Upon collision, the high-energy electrons would appear as quarks (they still contain a great amount of energy from constructive wave interference). Since the positron would immediately annihilate with one of the four electrons, it would not be detected. The wave centers of the fourth electron and positron remain, but destructive waves reduce its amplitude to near zero, and as such, it has no charge that can be detected by an electromagnetic apparatus. Thus, only three of the high-energy electrons would be detected. Further, it’s possible that the effect of the fourth electron and positron on one of the remaining three electrons could cause slight constructive wave interference so that it appears to have slightly more energy (down quark) than the other two electrons (up quarks).


Proton collisions


This proposed model also fits higher energy experiments that recently show four quarks and an anti-quark. Reviewing the figure above, each of the electrons would be the four quarks and the positron would be the anti-quark discovered in the experiment.

Quarks are never found in isolation. They are only found within the structure of the proton. Given the representation of energy as wave amplitude, it is very possible that the proton consists of electrons, which appear in very different form when in close proximity, constructively adding wave amplitude and forming the core of a new particle.


Spin & Color

The explanation of color and the proton’s spin must also match experiments in the proposed structure of the proton. First, spin can be explained in the figure below. The four electrons in the vertices of the tetrahedron might have spin that adds to zero. The positron would have spin +½ or -½, giving the proton its spin.


Proton Spin


Spin is possibly the reason for determining the color of quarks, or the gluons that connect each of the quarks together. The model for color was based on the current understanding of a proton’s three-quark arrangement. There are three colors: Red, Green and Blue. Quarks don’t really have color, but this model was developed to simplify the understanding of the quark arrangement.

When three quarks are detected, there would be three electrons with spin and one undetected electron-positron combination that may affect one of the electrons, causing it to be the down quark in the arrangement.

Thus, the following would be the possible combinations of the gluon arrangements in the figure above (giving each a color name to map to the known colors):

  • Red: Two electrons of same spin (+½ and +½; or -½ and -½)
  • Green: Two electrons of opposite spin (+½ and -½)
  • Blue: One electron and the combination of the electron affected by the annihilated electron-positron (+½ and -½ + -½ + ½; or -½ and +½ + -½ + ½)