Weak Force


The weak force is believed to be responsible for particle decay, most notably the changing of a neutron to a proton, or vice versa, the transformation of a proton into a neutron. The figure below is an example of beta decay when a neutron (n) becomes a proton (p) due to the weak force. During the process, an electron (e) and an antineutrino (v) are ejected during the process. It’s not unexpected that particles are ejected from the neutron and proton because they are known to be composite particles made of other particles. However, it is surprising that electrons and neutrinos are ejected in this process when protons and neutrons are considered to be solely made of quarks.

Weak Force




The weak force is not a separate force.  Instead, it is likely to be an aggregate of strong and electromagnetic forces and is dependent on the location of a neutron or proton – whether they are bound together in an atomic nucleus or existing in free space. The proton and neutron consists of electrons and positrons, although as it was described in the strong force section, the electrons at the tetrahedral vertices no longer appear as typical electrons as they spin with high energy, transferring longitudinal wave energy to transverse wave energy.

neutron structure energy wave theory



The neutron page has further detail on this structure, but is quickly summarized here:

  • The tetrahedral electrons have no external charge as their energies are converted into gluons (transverse waves), bound by the strong force.
  • A positron exists in the center, bound weakly by the electric force as a free particle, but bound by the strong force when binding in a nucleus.
  • An additional electron also exists in the center, bound weakly by the electric force as a free particle, but bound by the strong force when binding in a nucleus. When this electron is in the center, it is destructive with the positron, creating a neutral charge.


Energy for Decay

With sufficient energy, the center particles may be separated from the composite particle. For example, solar neutrinos arrive from the Sun to Earth. With the right probability of striking the center electron of a free neutron, it could dislodge it. The following is an animation of a neutrino with sufficient energy striking the neutron. A neutron becomes a proton in the process, and a neutrino and electron are ejected – exactly matching the results beta minus decay.

Beta Decay energy wave theory


Beta Decay Process

Three examples are provided to validate the beta decay processes of neutrons and protons. If a solar neutrino with kinetic energy as it travels from the Sun has sufficient energy, it can dislodge the electron/positron in the center of the nucleon for examples #2 and #3. The center electron/positron experiences the strong force (nuclear force) when in an atomic nucleus and the kinetic energy of the solar neutrino is not sufficient to dislodge the center particle.

Weak force before decay

Weak force after decay


#1) Stable Neutron

A neutron in nuclei formation is also governed by the strong force (nuclear force). It is generally stable and may exist forever. The forces disrupting the neutron in atomic nuclei are not sufficient to overcome the strong force and it does not decay. The exception would be events (particle collisions) that have significant energy to dislodge the center electron. If this occurs, the results are the same as above (free neutron).


#2) Free Neutron – Beta Minus Decay

In beta decay observations, a free neutron decays after ~15 minutes into a proton. The free neutron may be explained by the fact that the electron in the neutron’s center is only held in place by the electric force. It is a probabilistic event but the frequency of neutrinos arriving at Earth is predictable and the likelihood of it striking the center of a free neutron may be every 15 minutes. The result is a proton and the ejected particles are an electron and a neutrino (see diagram in proof below).

Further proof of this probability of solar neutrinos has been found in the neutron’s decay rates – varying slightly with the distance between the Earth and the Sun during annual modulation. The decay rate is faster when the Earth is closer to the Sun in January, and slower when the Earth is farther from the Sun in July. The probability of a random event of a solar neutrino collision may not be as random, given a stable Sun (in the absence of solar flares, etc.) and distance between the Earth and Sun. The decay rate is also slower when neutrons are moving in a beam versus stable in a container.


#3 )Proton – Beta Plus Decay

A proton, with a positron at its center, can lose the positron with sufficient energy – such as a solar neutrino. It becomes an empty shell of a nucleon with a neutral charge, appearing like a neutron. The output particles would once again match the expected beta decay results: the proton becomes a neutron and a positron and neutrino are ejected.

In a separate process known as electron capture, a proton in an atom can capture an electron. This turns the proton into a neutron according to this model. Both the electron and beta decay processes have been animated and shown for the proton in the proton explanation page.




The proof comes from beta decay experiments for the proton and neutron.

Proof of the energy wave explanation for the weak force is the explanations of beta decay experiments:

  • Beta minus decay– see above
  • Beta plus decay – see above


Proposed Test for Further Proof

A new test is proposed to validate this theory of solar neutrinos being responsible for beta decay. Neutron decay is based on an element like a solar neutrino that collides at some predictable frequency. Thus, it would be expected to decay at a slower rate further from the Sun, likely slowing at a rate equal to the square of the distance from the Sun – if it is indeed a solar particle that is responsible for decay.


NoteMore detail about the proposed structure of the proton and neutron using the pentaquark model is found in the strong force and orbitals. The structures can also be found in both the Forces and Fundamental Physical Constants papers.