Fundamental Particle

The neutrino is the fundamental particle.  It is a wave center reflecting spherical, longitudinal waves. These reflections produce standing waves. As it will be shown in the Particle Creation section, the fundamental particle is the building block that creates other subatomic particles.  The universe is simple – there are not tens or hundreds of different particles.  Particle accelerators continue to find new particles, and more will be found.  We’re in an era of unprecedented discoveries in the subatomic world,  akin to chemistry in the 1800s when various atomic elements were discovered.  At that time, these atomic elements were thought to be unique.  Now, we know that these atoms are simply geometric formations of protons (and neutrons) in a nucleus that build the atomic elements we know in the Periodic Table.  It is simply the configuration of protons in the core that determines the difference between hydrogen and gold, or helium and silver.

The smallest neutrino, otherwise known as the electron neutrino, is the fundamental particle.  This section provides the argument for a fundamental particle, and why science should be considering the equivalent of the Periodic Table for subatomic elements.  Whereas the number of protons in the nucleus determines the atomic element formation in the Periodic Table, the number of neutrinos in a particle core determines the subatomic particle.





Building Blocks

The argument for a fundamental particle begins with the concept of building blocks.  Similar to Legos that are assembled and broken apart, the same happens with subatomic particles.  If three Legos are assembled together to create a new structure, there are only two unique ways that they can be broken apart (decay): 1) break into three individual Legos, or 2) break into one individual Lego and a new structure of two Legos.

Three legos A larger Lego structure, has many more options when it is broken into its pieces.  The more Legos in the structure, the more options when it breaks (decays).

Twelve legos

The same is true for particles.  A larger particle has more neutrinos in its core, and thus it has more options that it can decay.  This is seen in subatomic particles, many of which have a very short lifespan and decay quickly once created in particle accelerator labs.  Consider these facts:

  • The neutrino has not been found decay.  It is the smallest known particle discovered.
  • The pion, one of the smallest of non-lepton particles, has been found to decay two unique ways.
  • The Higgs boson, one of the largest particles discovered, has been found to decay at least five unique ways.

Larger particles have a greater number of decay possibilities.  Yet the neutrino does not decay.


Longitudinal Energy Equation – Neutrino Rest Energy

Using the Longitudinal Energy equation, when K=1, meaning one wave center at the core of the particle, the neutrino’s rest energy can be calculated.  The CODATA value of the neutrino is expected in the 3.52 x 10-19 joules range (or 2.2 eV).  The calculated value of the neutrino using the wave equation is 3.82 x 10-19 joules.


Neutrino energy calculation