# Elementary Charge

## Explanation

The elementary charge is the electric charge carried by a single electron or proton. It is the reflected longitudinal displacement of a granule from equilibrium at the core of the particle – a harmonic motion that appears as waves – and measured correctly as a distance (SI unit of meters). Both the electron and proton are known to spin, producing two types of waves: longitudinal (electric) and transverse (magnetic).   The elementary charge is the displacement responsible for the electric force.  It spreads spherically, with each granule transferring energy to a greater number of granules in the lattice, losing wave amplitude proportional to the distance from the wave center.  This is described visually in the next figure. Wave amplitude continues to decrease from the electron’s core with each wavelength, within the particle or beyond.  It was shown to be responsible for the electron’s energy and mass within the particle’s radius and also the electric force beyond the particle’s radius.  The only difference is the wave form, as it is stored energy as a result of standing waves within a particle, and it is kinetic energy as traveling waves beyond the particle’s radius where standing waves break down. As traveling waves, granule motion may constructively or destructively interfere with other granules, ultimately creating a force when reaching another particle.

The Planck charge, by comparison, is the in-wave displacement that reaches the core of the electron or proton. Due to energy required to spin a particle, longitudinal out-wave displacement is decreased, becoming the elementary charge.  The remaining energy is converted to a transverse out-wave form that becomes the magnetic force. In a particle where spin is not considered, the full energy of the Planck charge is reflected, such as the strong force.

## Derivation – Elementary Charge

In classical constant format, the elementary charge is derived from the Planck charge and the square root of the fine structure constant due to the decrease in energy required for particle spin (as described above). Both of these constants can be replaced with energy wave constants from values derived on this site, and the result of the wave constant derivation is shown below. In wave constant form, the units resolve correctly to be a distance (wave amplitude).  This simple change from charge (Coulombs) to distance (meters) allows mass and charge equations to be unified.

### Classical Constant Form ### Wave Constant Form Using classical constants Using energy wave constants

Calculated Value: 1.6022E-19
Difference from CODATA: 0.000%
Calculated Units: m
G-Factor: gA-1

Note: Units are in meters, not Coulombs (C), as wave theory measures charge based on amplitude, which is in meters.

Its value was calculated and shown to match the known value in the Summary of Calculations table. The derivation of this constant is available in the Fundamental Physical Constants paper.