# Planck Constant

## Explanation

The Planck constant (h) appears in many physics equations, most notably E=hf (otherwise known as the Planck relation or Planck-Einstein relation). Named after Max Planck, it is used to calculate the energy of the electromagnetic wave such as radio, light, microwaves, X-rays, etc. Each of these are different frequencies (f) of the electromagnetic wave. Since Planck’s constant does not change, the energy of an electromagnetic wave (photon) is based only on wave frequency, which is variable. Frequency (f) is the variable in the equation, but it masks two variables: one for the distance between the electron and nucleus and one for the constructive wave interference the electron experiences from surrounding particles.  The Planck constant contains the remaining wave constants in the energy equation.

## Derivation – Planck Constant

In classical format, the Planck constant can be derived from the Planck mass, Planck length and Planck time. In wave format, the Planck constant was derived from the Transverse Energy Equation and provided in detail on the page on the Planck relation (E=hf). The Planck constant appears as a combination of wave constant values when solving for energy when transverse wavelength (or frequency) is variable.  It is a proportionality constant that was derived in detail in the Particle Energy and Interaction paper – it’s a combination of other constants in an energy equation that expresses the binding energy between the atomic nucleus and an electron at distance, leaving a variable for the frequency of a photon that is generated or absorbed.

### Wave Constant Form

Using classical constants Using energy wave constants

Calculated Value: 6.6261E-34
Difference from CODATA: 0.000%
Calculated Units: kg m2 / s
G-Factor: gλ

### Alternative Derivation

An alternative derivation in classical form is shown with the magnetic constant, Planck charge and speed of light. This version shows the consistency of energy and mass equations in classical format, as explained on the page for Coulomb’s constant.

Its value was calculated and shown to match the known value in the Summary of Calculations table. The derivation of this constant is available in the Fundamental Physical Constants paper.