# Spacetime

## What is a Spacetime?

Spacetime is a model of the universe that takes the three spatial dimensions of space and merges it with the dimension of time for a four-dimensional continuum.  Before 1905 and Albert Einstein’s special relativity, space and time were believed to be independent of each other.  Einstein linked the two together with relativity theory.

The position of any object in the universe can be described by three numbers in a coordinate system, such as x, y and z in Cartesian coordinates. Its position changes based on time (t), so to describe the position of an object at any time requires the four dimensions of spacetime. However, the fusing of spacetime together has effects on an object that is in motion, especially at incredibly high speeds approaching the speed of light. Amongst other strange effects, Einstein described an object’s motion in spacetime with phenomena like time dilation and length contraction. In the latter, an object shrinks in size as its speed increases. Einstein also described gravity as the warping of spacetime. Credit: Tokamac from Wikimedia Commons

### Questions

• How does spacetime bend and contort to cause gravity?
• How can energy and forces be transferred through the vacuum of spacetime?
• Why do particles and photons have wave-like properties if there is no substance to “wave” in spacetime?

## Explanation

In energy wave theory, spacetime is a physical substance that occupies the universe, as a medium that allows the transfer of energy of its components. It is more commonly referred to as the aether, which was broadly accepted within the physics community until the late 1800s when the Michelson-Morley experiment failed to detect an aether. Einstein, and others that followed in the 1900s, have used the term spacetime.

If spacetime is considered to be a structure that curves, the structure that is curving must be defined.  Similarly, if particles and photons are considered to be wave-like, the structure that is waving must be defined.  Here, the structure of spacetime at the smallest of levels – the quintessence of the universe – is proposed to be a material in a lattice structure of repeating unit cells, where each of the cells contain granules that vibrate in harmonic motion. Spacetime Lattice of Granules (left); Granules in Motion (right)

### Units and Constants

The units section highlights the three units necessary to describe spacetime, the particles that are created in space and the energies and forces of such particles. Only three units are needed, which is the kg/m/s unit system. For example, a mass of Planck mass (kilograms), a distance of Planck length (meters) and a time of Planck time (seconds). Other measurements become a combination of these units, such as speed (meters per second). The constants section highlights the simplification of fundamental physical constants to only five total constants. Two different methods are used for calculations on this site, using classical equations or wave equations, but both methods require only five constants. In classical terms, there are four constants from the Planck system and the electron’s radius. In wave terms, there are four constants from wave properties and a constant of the electron.

### Geometry

The geometry section highlights the physical structure of spacetime and why some of the Planck constants appear in equations. A lattice structure is proposed as a repeating structure of unit cells, similar to a formation commonly seen in molecules. The Planck constants are found naturally in the mathematics of equations that represent unit cells. It will also be shown that a unit cell exhibits behavior similar to a spring-mass system, and as a result, can be calculated using classical mechanics. Planck mass is the representative mass in this spring-mass system as explained in the constants page. Unit Cell of Spacetime Lattice

The section also explains why various forces appear as simple geometric ratios of particles despite being one fundamental force. The rectangle, sphere and sphere+cone geometries are used to calculate the coupling constants that are the strength of forces,  relative to the electric force, including the derivation of the fine structure constant.

### Mechanics

The mechanics section highlights the classical mechanics equations that are used throughout the theory to calculate subatomic particle energies and forces, without the need for quantum mechanics. Two methods are used, including spring-mass equations and equations describing waves that are based on sound waves. An explanation for why both of these methods result in the same calculations is provided in that section.

It will be shown that the energy of the spring-mass system can be derived to the Coulomb energy, which at a given distance is the Coulomb force (electric force). An illustration of granules converging on a wave center (blue) is shown in the next figure on the left; it is reflected as expands out on the right in the next figure. The mechanics section explains the motion of granules in a lattice that are displaced from equilibrium and return to their original position as harmonic motion. Like a mass at the end of a spring in motion, its position over time can be described by a sinusoidal wave. When multiple masses are linked, such as the spacetime lattice, these waves are constructive or destructive depending on the phase of the wave. This leads to attractive and repulsive forces.

Constructive Waves – Two or more granules in motion in the same direction will transfer a greater amount of energy to the next granule in the system.  This causes greater displacement of the granule (represented as greater wave amplitude in the sinusoidal wave representation in the figure).

Destructive Waves – Two or more granules in motion in the opposite direction may cancel energy, causing little to no displacement of the next granule linked in the system (represented as reduced wave amplitude in the sinusoidal wave representation in the figure – the flat black line in the bottom right). It is the motion of each of these granules that is the cause of their “charge” and the effect on the opposite particle’s motion. The latter motion depends on the particle’s position with respective to wave phase, such that the wave interference between two particles is either constructive or destructive, repelling or attracting another particle.

## Where is the Proof?

The proof of the spacetime lattice structure is found in:

Further proof is anticipated with a computer simulation of particle and atom creation using this model and only classical mechanics equations. For more information, visit the EWT Project.