# Particles

## What is a Particle?

A particle may generally be defined as a small fragment of matter.  The focus of this web site is specifically on subatomic particles, which are matter components that are smaller than atoms, or may be components of the atom itself.  Matter is based on arrangements of molecules, which are formed from atoms made of these subatomic particles. Nature builds from the smallest particles to the objects that we see as matter.

### Standard Model of Elementary Particles

The nucleus of an atom can be split into smaller components. Protons are smashed together in particle accelerators until the point that they break into smaller parts called quarks. In fact, there are dozens of additional particles that have been found in particle accelerator experiments. A summary of elementary particles that have been found is described by the Standard Model of particles.

### Questions

• How can a particle be both a particle and a wave, known as wave-particle duality?
• How can a neutrino grow in mass, in a process known as neutrino oscillation?
• How can a proton consist of only quarks when it ejects a positron and a neutrino in the beta plus decay process?
• If the energy of an atom can be described simply as E=mc2, why does it take a math equation that requires a supercomputer and more than 19 constants to calculate the energy of its particles?

## Explanation

In energy wave theory, particles are standing, longitudinal waves of energy.  Standing waves form from the combination of two waves traveling in opposite directions, as a result of wave reflection from a combination of one or more wave centers. From Laws #1 and #2 of the theory laws, energy travels as longitudinal waves in spacetime and travels in the direction of motion transferring energy from one granule to the next. From Law #3, when this energy reaches a wave center, it reflects energy backward. This creates a standing wave, which is stored energy.

### The Formation of Particles

The spherical, reflected out-wave creates a standing wave that is declining in amplitude as it moves further from the source of reflection. When the amplitude of the out-wave declines to an amplitude that is less than in-wave amplitude, standing waves transition back to traveling waves.  This creates a spherical radius for the particle in which the volume it contains is standing wave energy. Beyond the radius, waves continue to travel as traveling waves and will be the cause of electrical forces. The energy reflected by a single wave center, with one standing wave wavelength as its perimeter, matches the properties of the neutrino. Single Wave Center – Fundamental Particle
(spherical longitudinal waves represented by sine wave icons)

From Law #4 of the theory laws, wave centers may combine if they are in stable positions at nodes in a standing wave. This is the point of minimal amplitude in a standing wave.  There are two nodes per wavelength in a standing wave.  Each position is opposite wave phase from the other, creating destructive waves.  A combination of wave centers at these nodes and their phase on the waves determines particles and antiparticles.  From Law #5 of the theory laws, particle energy and mass are calculated as the volume of wave energy. In the case of particles, it is standing wave (stored) energy that has increased in both amplitude and volume as a result of multiple wave centers reflecting waves. The energy significantly increases as more wave centers are added to the formation. Multiple Wave Centers – Formation of New Particles

The previous image is a sine wave representation of wave amplitude in 1D.  Longitudinal waves are spherical with amplitude in the direction of propagation.  A representation of the intersection of these waves and standing wave nodes is illustrated in the next image.  In a 2D plane, the geometry for stability is a triangular pattern.  In 3D, it would be a tetrahedron.  These are the geometries for wave center formation that cause stable particles.

### 2D View – Wave centers at standing wave nodes and stable geometries

### Particle Creation, Decay and Spin

Particles may be created by combining wave centers (oscillation), creating standing waves with greater amplitude, extending further from the core.  Particles may also break apart (decay).  To be stable, the geometric formation should allow wave centers to be at standing wave nodes.

• Creation (low energy) – At energy levels in nature, such as solar neutrinos, a small amount of wave centers may combine to form new particles. This is known as neutrino oscillation.
• Creation (high energy) – At higher energy levels, such as particle accelerator labs, “heavier” particles may be created from the combination of a greater number of wave centers.
• Decay – Wave centers not at standing wave nodes will be forced to move, causing instability of the particle structure.  When the standing waves are separated, it becomes two or more particles in the decay process. Particle Creation and Decay

Some particles have stable geometries such that the particle structure may remain intact, yet it still has one or more wave centers off node that will be in motion.  In this case, it introduces the spin of a particle as one wave center moves to the node and displaces another, repeating itself as wave centers constantly move to node positions as the particle spins.  Even the proposed electron geometry of a 3-level tetrahedron has a wave flow direction where wave centers cannot be exactly at nodes. Particle Spin – Motion of wave centers in a stable structure

### Particles Create Matter

It will be shown that a single particle can create not only other particles, but is the building block of matter as particles build atoms which build molecules.  A single wave center goes through many steps to create matter.

• Neutrino – likely the fundamental particle (wave center) based on energy calculations in EWT
• Electron – a combination of ten neutrinos
• Proton – a combination of four highly-energetic electrons and a positron in the center
• Neutron – a combination of a proton with an additional electron in the center
• Atoms – a combination of protons, neutrons and electrons Universal Building Blocks – From a fundamental particle to molecules

### “This model… has a known equivalent in the formation of elements”

If this seems logical, as it has a known equivalent in the world of atoms and elements, why wasn’t this model proposed earlier? Atomic elements have mass that is linear. The mass of protons and neutrons within atomic elements follow a logical pattern because their mass can be added together. The mass of particles is not as simple. It doesn’t follow a linear path by adding the masses of its components together. The mass of the electron is about 232,000 times greater than the estimated mass of the neutrino, and the mass of the proton is 1,836 times greater than the mass of the electron. However, a solution to linearize the masses of known subatomic particles does exist and it creates a link between particles and atomic elements.

## Where is the Proof?

An equation for calculating standing wave energy was used to calculate particle energies from the lightest neutrino to the heavy Higgs boson.

• Visual Proof of Electron
• In 2008, the electron was filmed at Lund University in Sweden and shown to have a standing wave structure.
• Relationship Between Particles and Atomic Elements (Linear Sequence)
• With a modification to the equation, all of the known particles fit reasonably into a linear sequence when mapping particle mass/energy versus particle number. This is the same process that was used for atomic elements and the creation of the Periodic Table of Elements.
• In this sequence, the masses of leptons appear at the same magic number sequence (2, 8, 20, 28, 50) as atoms in the Periodic Table of Elements. Only #2 is missing in the sequence and may be an undiscovered neutrino.
• The sequence starts with the neutrino at a particle count of 1. The largest particle (Higgs boson) has a particle count of 117. This is near the end of the known Periodic Table of Elements which ends at 118.
• Relationship Between Particles and Photons
• A relationship is established between particle energy and photons. Using the conservation of energy principle, mathematical explanations of the photons are simply a transfer of transverse wave energy to longitudinal wave energy and vice versa.
• Relationship Between Particles and Forces
• The Longitudinal Energy Equation is expanded from standing waves to traveling waves to derive the equations for all forces. Mass and the electric force come from the same wave energy but is simply a difference in standing wave vs traveling waves.