Although the properties of electricity had been studied for centuries prior to its discovery, the electron was found by J.J. Thomson in 1897, before the discovery of the other components of the atom: proton and neutron. The electron is a stable particle and a key component of the atom. In addition to stabilizing the atom, it is responsible for binding atoms together to form molecules. It also plays a role in electricity and magnetism. Like other particles, it demonstrates wave-particle duality, acting as waves and also exhibiting particle behavior.

The electron is a member of the lepton family. There are six known leptons in the Standard Model: three are in the neutrino family and three in the electron family. The neutrinos (neutrino, muon neutrino and tau neutrino) have no electrical charge. The electrons (electron, muon electron and tau electron) have electrical charges. Unlike most particles, leptons can be found in nature. Electrons are found in atoms and are stable in free space, and its heavier cousin, the muon electron, can be found in Earth’s atmosphere during the decay of cosmic rays.

electron in hydrogen atom




In energy wave theory, the electron is formed from a collection of ten wave centers (neutrinos), expressed in the wave constant variable K=10.  As this value of K appears in many equations related to the electron, it is given a special electron constant, Ke. Ten wave centers would likely form a three-level tetrahedron to be stable in three dimensions when responding to spherical, longitudinal waves. A potential view of the electron is below. The numbers 1, 3 and 6 represent the number of wave centers in each row of the structure – for a total of 10 wave centers.


Electron picture

Electron – Wave Centers


A Particle and a Wave

The electron consists of ten wave centers at its core, which are physical particles, but what is measured as the electron’s energy or mass is its standing wave structure. Therefore, it has both particle and wave features.  Spherical, longitudinal waves converge on the wave centers (in-waves) at the speed of light (c), being reflected to out-waves traveling at the same speed, creating standing waves as a result of two waves with the same frequency traveling in opposite directions.

A collection of ten wave centers causes wave amplitude to increase proportional to the number of wave centers. In addition, the increased amplitude causes the number of wavelengths of standing waves to increase, extending the particle’s radius which is defined as the boundary between standing waves and traveling waves. Within a standing wave structure, there is no net propagation of energy.  It has energy, but this feature of a standing wave contains the energy, appearing as stored energy.

Electron – Standing Waves of Energy

  • Electron Energy – Sum of the energy contained within the spherical structure of standing waves
  • Electron Mass – Standing wave energy without consideration of the in-wave and out-wave speeds – i.e. without c2
  • Electron Radius – The boundary where standing waves transition to traveling waves when amplitude declines to match in-wave amplitude
  • Electron Charge – Traveling out-wave amplitude, starting with the elementary charge amplitude at the first wavelength and decreasing in amplitude as it spreads spherically


Electron Charge

Within standing waves, wave centers attempt to position at standing wave nodes where amplitude is zero (Law #4 of theory laws).  Beyond a particle’s radius, traveling waves constructively or destructively interfere with other particles and wave centers move to minimize wave amplitude.  For a single electron, the wave amplitude spreading spherically at the first wavelength is measured as the elementary charge.  Amplitude continues to decline with distance and its effects of longitudinal wave interference on other particles causes the electric forceCharge is simply wave amplitude. It is constructive or destructive depending on wave amplitudes of particles in proximity to others.

Constructive or destructive wave interference depends upon the particle’s wave phase. There are only two nodes in a wavelength of a standing wave. Because wave centers are only stable at nodes, one node can be considered the position for standard matter (e.g. electron) and the other node position for antimatter (e.g. positron). The positron is the antimatter equivalent of the electron. It also consists of ten waves centers as it has an identical rest energy and mass as the electron. The only difference between the electron and positron is the node position on the standing wave. Both are stable positions on the wave.

  • Electron + Electron: Constructive wave interference causes greater amplitude between particles, forcing particles to repel
  • Positron +Positron: Constructive wave interference causes greater amplitude between particles, forcing particles to repel
  • Electron + Positron: Destructive wave interference causes reduced amplitude between particles, attracting the particles

For example, when an electron (shown as Particle 1 below) interacts with a positron (shown as Particle 2), the position on the wave causes destructive wave interference. The positron is 180 degrees out of phase on the wave from the electron and cancels wave amplitude.

Destructive Wave

Destructive Wave Interference


Electron Spin

The electron is known to have a spin, creating an magnetic charge. Its spin is referred to as 1/2, meaning that it takes two rotations for the electron to return to its original position. Other than a single wave center (neutrino), the electron is the most stable particle. With a three-dimensional, spherical wave, it would possibly be a tetrahedron shape (proposed above).  In a tetrahedron, wave centers would be equally spaced at wavelengths causing stability in most wave directions such as:

Electron reacting to waves in all directions


The exception would be a wave center that is off node (standing wave node) in a particular direction of wave flow, as marked in red below. The fundamental cause of motion is for wave centers to minimize wave amplitude, so it introduces motion of the individual wave center.  Most wave centers are at nodes, so the electron remains intact and does not decay like other particles.  It is a stable particle, but it introduces spin.  All from the same fundamental rule for particle creation and for all forces!

electron wave center off node


This wave center would attempt to reposition on a node, causing motion to the structure, forcing another wave center off node. Therefore, the electron is constantly spinning and requiring energy as the wave centers react to minimize wave amplitude. The spin of a tetrahedral electron could very likely take two rotations, matching the 1/2 spin that is measured for the electron.

The energy loss that is required to keep the electron spinning is a loss in longitudinal wave amplitude and a difference between the in-wave and out-wave as pictured below. The spin of the electron becomes the magnetic force – a new transverse wave. This has been accurately modeled to be the magnetic moment of the electron (Bohr magneton). The energy loss also becomes the reason for gravity.

Particle Spin and Amplitude Effect


Electron Experiments

Two observations from different electron experiments support this model of the electron’s structure:


Neutrinos in Electron Decay

Evidence in high-energy, electron-positron experiments do show that neutrinos are produced in addition to the expected photons. The electron is assumed to be an elementary particle in the Standard Model, so the fact that it produces a lower-mass particle like the neutrino is significant. The wave center is likely the neutrino both because of the calculated value matching the fundamental particle, but also because of decay results from the electron and positron such as this:

Electron and positron decay to neutrinos and photons

Source: https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.07645

Electron Decay – Electron and positron (positronium – e+ and e) decays to neutrinos (ve) and photons


Electron’s Standing Wave Structure

In 2008, scientists at Lund University in Sweden captured the electron for the first time ever in motion.  The electron is shown to have standing wave characteristics, explaining its wave-particle duality. The electron is a particle that consists of standing waves and it has been recently captured on film.

Electron Filmed in Motion – 2008 at Lund University


The second attribute can be deduced from the number of standing waves. In the derivation of the Longitudinal Energy Equation a particle’s radius grows proportional to the number of wave centers (10) at the core. Reviewing the Lund University electron, it appears to have 10 wavelengths.

Electron Wavelengths

Electron Standing Wavelengths




Proof of the energy wave explanation for the electron is the calculations, derivation and explanation of:

    • Experimental Proof – see video above
    • Electric force – electron’s longitudinal, traveling wave force 
    • Magnetic force – electron’s transverse, magnetic force when in motion (electromagnetism)
    • Bohr magneton derivation – electron’s magnetic moment at rest
    • Electron energy and mass calculations – see below
    • Electron energy relation to Coulomb’s energy and the Rydberg energy – see below


Classical Terms – Coulomb Energy

It will be shown that the electron’s energy comes from electric energy, referred to as Coulomb energy from Coulomb’s law. The energy equation is shown with the components of Coulomb’s constant – in magnetic constant terms – multiplied by amplitude (squared) and dividing by the distance (radius).

Energy equation expressed as magnetic constant and wave amplitude

Coulomb Energy Equation


Electron Energy – In the Coulomb energy equation, replace amplitude with elementary charge; replace radius with electron radius.  The electron’s energy is the energy stored within its radius. For the electron’s mass, simply remove c2.

Electron energy

Rydberg Energy – The energy continues beyond its standing wave boundary as Coulomb energy, typically measured as a force not energy. The orbitals of atoms can be measured as energy – such as the Rydberg energy – which is for an electron at the Bohr radius (a0). The same Coulomb energy equation is used but now with a distance of the Bohr radius.  A factor of ½ is used as it eventually need two electrons in an orbit to be stable.

Rydberg unit of energy in magnetic constant terms

Coulomb Force – Coulomb’s law, which is the electric force, is the Coulomb energy at distance.  The only difference between this energy and a force, is that radius is squared in a force.  In the Coulomb energy equation, replace amplitude with elementary charge; radius is now a variable distance r at which two electrons are measured.  It is the force of two electrons.

Electric force of two electrons


Electron Energy – Calculation in Wave Constant Form

Equation: Longitudinal Energy Equation

  • K=10 (Ke)

Electron Energy Derived and Calculated

Result: 8.1871E-14 joules (kg m2/s2)
Comments: No difference (0.000%) from the CODATA value of the electron energy.


Electron Mass – Calculation in Wave Constant Form

Equation: Longitudinal Energy Equation without c2 in the numerator.

  • K=10 (Ke)

Result: 9.1094E-31 kg
Comments: No difference (0.000%) from the CODATA value of the electron mass.


Electron Outer Shell Multiplier (Oe)

Due to the electron energy and electron mass appearing in many equations in EWT, the summation in the equation is replaced by a constant (Oe) for readability in all equations that use it, as shown in the electron energy constant and electron mass constant pages.