Matter is based on arrangements of molecules. These molecules are formed from atomic elements, and these elements are formed from subatomic particles: protons, neutrons and electrons.

particles to atoms to molecules

Credit: Chem4kids


Atomic elements form molecules by sharing electrons (e.g. hydrogen and oxygen atoms bond to form water as shown below). The geometric structure of these bonds are important as atoms form molecules. One study of molecular structures is called VESPR theory. Common arrangements in VESPR are either based on linear or triangular arrangements when these bonds are formed, and when bonding in three dimensions, the tetrahedral structure is very common.

Examples of molecules

Credit: Chem4kids




Matter is a result of subatomic particles minimizing wave amplitude. A fundamental particle, likely the neutrino, is modeled in this theory as a wave center that responds to spherical, longitudinal waves and moves to the point of minimal wave amplitude. A collection of neutrinos was shown to create particles, similar to how protons create various atomic elements. When this collection of neutrinos is placed in geometrically stable formations to place each neutrino (wave center) on the node of the wave, then the particle itself will be stable. However, there are few geometric arrangements where this is possible.

The electron’s rest energy and mass were proven using a collection of 10 neutrinos (wave centers) and by increasing its standing wave radius and amplitude proportionally based on this collection. Ten neutrinos would form a three-level tetrahedron. It was also shown why the tetrahedron is the simplest 3D geometric formation for stability. However, not all wave centers are on the node of a wave, which introduces particle spin. Other particles may form (oscillate) or break apart (decay) as a result of these neutrino arrangements.

The proton is proposed to be a pentaquark, as evidenced by the strong force, weak force and atomic orbital derivations and calculations in this theory. An explanation of why three quarks are often found in proton collisions instead of five quarks is provided in quark confinement. In the proposed pentaquark model of the proton, there are four quarks at the tetrahedral vertices and an anti-quark at the center. This is a two-level tetrahedron. Furthermore, calculations in the Atomic Orbitals paper have evidence that the electron is the likely candidate for the quark. When two electrons are placed in close proximity, within their standing wave radius, they no longer repel. Instead, they remain at nodes within standing waves and have a strong force (gluons). This force was accurately modeled in wave theory. If this is the case, this means that neutrinos combine to form the electron, and then electrons combine to form the proton.

In the section on the atomic nucleus structure, there is further evidence of tetrahedral structures. There are two clues to protons stacking in a tetrahedral pattern: 1) orbital shapes and 2) periodic sequence. Various tetrahedral structures are formed depending on the number of protons and neutrons, leading to the sequence of the Periodic Table of Elements.

As it will be shown in the Atoms section, the proton also has a repulsive force, keeping the electron in orbit. The electron may then bond with another proton from a different atom, creating a molecule.  It is possible that the structure and shape of the molecule is similar to the structure of the proton arrangement in the nucleus.

neutrino to molecules - building tetrahedral shapes based on simple rule of wave minimization


From building particles like electrons and then protons, the tetrahedral pattern continues to atomic nuclei and finally to molecules.