Particles and waves need a set of rules that govern the interaction of energy within the aether. The proposed rules are:

- Energy waves travel throughout the aether at a defined wave speed and wavelength as wavelets to form a wavefront according to Hyugen’s principle. Amplitude is reduced at the square of distance from the source and experiences constructive and destructive wave interference.
- Aether granules are the medium that can respond to a wave such that it can pass its inertia and momentum to the next granule. It may have a memory to understand its state, which holds a defined amount of energy.
- Aether wave centers reflect longitudinal waves and may assemble in formation to create particles via constructive and destructive wave interference.
- Aether wave centers move to minimize amplitude on the wave, thereby preferring the node position of the wave.
- Wave energy is proportional to amplitude, wavelength, wave speed and density of a defined volume

According to the fifth rule, the energy is:

The base wave energy equation has two forms: 1) longitudinal and 2) transverse. The complete derivations are derived in *Particle Energy and Interaction* paper. The main equations used in this site are these energy equations:

**Longitudinal Energy Equation**

**Transverse Energy Equation**

.And a photon wavelength can be calculated using this equation:

**Transverse Wavelength Equation**

Notation and constants for these equations, in addition to other equations used, can be found in the Wave Equation reference page.

## Evidence

Use of these equations and evidence that they work to explain the particles and their interactions are found throughout this site. Some of the many calculations are:

- Calculation of Electron Rest Energy and Mass
- Calculation of other Leptons Rest Energy and Mass, including the Neutrino as the fundamental particle
- Calculation of Hydrogen ionization energies and wavelengths
- Calculation of ionization energies for elements from Helium to Calcium in the 1s orbital
- Derivation of the Planck constant and Rydberg constant
- Derivation of widely used energy equations: E=mc2, E=pc and E=hf