Published by Sir Isaac Newton in 1687, Newton’s Second Law (F=ma) is one of three laws of motion that laid the foundation of classical mechanics in Principia. The second law states that the sum of forces (F) on an object is equal to its mass (m) times the acceleration of the object (a).

newtons second law f=ma


In energy wave theory, the second law represents a collection of particles experiencing electromagnetic forces when in close proximity.  Coulomb’s Law could be used for the force of particles, except that it is the force on the sum of particles measured in charge (q) as opposed to particle mass (m).  In modern physics, there is difficulty to reconcile Newton’s laws of motion and Coulomb’s law because charge and mass are separate properties (explained separately here). Like all forces, particle motion is a result of constructive or destructive wave interference that causes a change in amplitude. Particles move to minimize amplitude. This movement becomes the force. A greater difference in amplitude causes a greater force.

A particle experiencing acceleration and with initial velocity of zero - amplitude difference in energy wave theory




Both the classical and wave constant derivations are the same, since the basis comes from the energy-momentum relation (E=pc). The first steps were already proven on the energy-momentum page and are not duplicated here. Visit the E=pc page for the first steps of the derivation.  Further details can be found in the Key Physics Equations and Experiments paper. .

F=ma derived




Acceleration (a) values were calculated in the Forces section for various planet surface gravity/acceleration values, including Earth which was found to be 9.81 m / s2.  The calculations require an explanation for obtaining particle count (Q) based on estimated nucleons for planets, not covered here.