Force Equations


Force Equations

There are five force equations derived in EWT and explained on their own respective pages.  The weak force does not have an equation and is explained separately. The explanation of each force is simpler when describing them classically in terms of the electron’s energy (Ee), radius (re) and coupling constants. However, their true form is likely wave constant form, so both are described and are very much equal.


Electric Force

Classical Constant Form

Wave Constant Form

Force Equation

Magnetic Force*

Magnetic Force Simplified

Magnetic Force

Gravitational Force

Simplified gravitational force

Gravitational Force

Strong Force

Simplified Strong Force

Strong Force

Orbital Force

Simplified Orbital Force

Orbital Force Equation
Using classical constants** Using energy wave constants



  • Q1 and Q2: A dimensionless count of two particle groups separated at distance***
  • r: The distance separating the particle groups (in meters)


* Magnetic force is the force of electromagnetism – a flow of electrons causing a magnetic force.

** Electron energy and mass (Ee and me) can be further derived but are used for readability.

*** The variable Q is a dimensionless particle count, not the electric charge (q).



Explanation of Equations

In EWT, there is a fundamental reason for all forces.  Force is a result of particle motion to minimize wave amplitude. There is a constant flow of wave energy, responsible for particle energy and mass.  This was confirmed in the calculations of the electron’s energy and mass based on the formation of standing waves.  Beyond the standing wave perimeter of the electron, waves are traveling longitudinal waves. The energy of these traveling waves is measured as a force (charge). In the figure below, the electron’s mass is described in blue as standing waves and its charge as traveling waves. The relationship of mass and charge and a consolidation of their equations can be found here.


Variables and Constants

The force equations use neither mass nor charge in the equation.  To reconcile all force equations – in both classical format and wave format – a dimensionless particle count (Q) is used instead.  Both mass and charge are based on the number of particles, as a result of constructive wave interference, so this becomes the lowest common denominator for units to resolve force equations. It is possible to derive classical force equations, such as Coulomb’s law, from this simple change of variables.

When wave amplitude is constant on all sides of a particle, there is no force as illustrated in the top half of the next figure. However, when there is a change in wave amplitude, then there is a force. The particle moves to minimize amplitude as illustrated in the bottom half of the next figure.

Force and No Force based on wave amplitude

As wave energy is reflected from the core of the electron, it declines in amplitude with distance (r).  When this energy is measured at a specific distance, it will be a force. The energy of the electron (Ee) is contained within its radius (re).  Beyond this radius, waves transform from standing waves to traveling waves and decrease in energy (wave amplitude).  It declines proportional to the electron’s radius (re) and distance (r) at which the energy of the spherical volume is measured. This is the “Coulomb energy” which can be measured at any distance (r) from a single electron:

Energy Traveling Waves at Distance

Note: this is the generic form of energy.  The electron’s energy and radius (Ee and re) can be substituted with either classical constants or wave constants to further derive the equation.


Energy and Force of a Group of Particles (Q)

Force equations rarely measure the force of a single particle.  It is typically a collection of particles, often grouped together such that they can be described by a separation distance (r) of the midpoints of two groups.  The equation for forces is based on two groups of particles (Q1 and Q2) with the interaction of wave interference across this separation distance, as described below.Collection of particles

The energy from the previous equation that is being measured for a group of particles (Q1) is:

Energy at Distance Multiple Particles

Finally, force is energy over distance (F=E/r). The effect of the second group of particles (Q2) is added to the equation. It is now an equation representing a force. When the wave constants for the electron’s energy and radius are substituted into the following, it becomes the fundamental force equation (electric force) and its calculations are the equivalent of Coulomb’s law.  The remaining forces are a variation of the electric force, changing in wave type or amplitude as summarized below and explained in detail on their respective pages.


Calculations and Examples

A summary of calculations and some examples using the equations are provided here. The remainder of the calculations and examples are detailed in the Forces paper.