## Background

From Wikipedia, “Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field”. In physics, it is a measurement of the attraction or repulsion of particles, as found by Coulomb when he established the relationship of charge and force over distance – Coulomb’s law.

Force causes the motion of particles, and the direction depends on the combination of charges as follows:

- Particles of the same charge will repel (+/+ or -/-).
- Particles of opposite charge will attract (+/-).

Large objects, like people, bikes or cars are made of atoms from these same particles. Yet the laws of motion and forces are based on mass, not on charge. Why? When a collision occurs in objects, it is really a collision of millions and millions of electrically charged particles in those objects. We calculate the force of that object based on mass (m), using Newton’s 2nd law (F=ma). **Shouldn’t charge (q) be related to mass (m)?**

## Explanation

*Charge is traveling longitudinal wave energy*. Mass and charge are indeed related and can be simplified to a single energy equation, represented in classical form on this page. To relate mass and charge, Coulombs can be explained as wave amplitude, which is measured as a distance (meters). If one assumes a *substance* in the vacuum of space that has a physical property of kilograms, and moves as waves, then mass and charge can be described as their motion. In EWT, this substance is referred to as the aether and its components as granules.

- Mass is standing longitudinal wave energy (without consideration of wave speed – c
^{2}) - Charge is traveling longitudinal wave energy over distance (force)

The elementary charge of a single particle (e_{e}) is the wave amplitude at the first wavelength, calculated in detail in the section on electric force. Amplitude is the average displacement from equilibrium of aether granules. The displacement of granules will be greater near the electron’s core and decrease in amplitude at distance, as granules collide and transfer energy to more granules as it spreads spherically.

Because matter (measured as rest energy or mass) is formed from the same wave that has electrical properties (measured as charge), they can be related both logically and mathematically. Logically, it is simply the type of longitudinal wave: standing or traveling. A standing wave is stored energy. A traveling wave, by definition, is traveling energy. A photon, by comparison, is a different wave form – it is a transverse wave in which wave propagation is perpendicular to particle motion (versus longitudinal which is in the direction of motion).

**Proof of the Relation of Matter and Charge**

The energy of the wave can be described classically in the following equation. In EWT, the energy equation is often shown in wave equation form, but it will be shown here classically to prove that the electron’s mass can be derived from classical electrical constants. The energy of the wave in classical format is:

*μ*_{0}– magnetic constant- c – speed of light
- q – charge (variable)
- r – distance (variable)

**Mass** is the stored energy of standing waves within the electron’s radius (r_{e}). Therefore, it is the energy equation without consideration of wave speed (c^{2}). For a single electron, the charge (q) is the elementary charge (e_{e}). The following derives to the exact value and units of the electron’s mass when using electrical properties (CODATA).

- q – e
_{e}(single electron charge) - r = r
_{e}(electron radius)

** **

**Charge **is wave amplitude at a given distance (r). It can be expressed as energy, but it is often expressed as a force, known as Coulomb’s law. The Coulomb constant is the magnetic constant times wave speed squared, over 4π. Coulomb gave it the letter k.

Force is energy at a distance (**F=E/r**), so for a force equation it becomes r^{2} in the denominator. Substituting the Coulomb constant for the constants in the energy equation (from above) yields Coulomb’s law.

Logically, both mass and charge can be explained as waves. And mathematically, the electron’s mass can now be expressed in terms of charge (q/e_{e}), relating the domains of mechanical and electrical by equation.

### Relation of Mass and Charge Force Equations

The relationship between laws of matter, noted by mass (m) in the equation, are equal to electromagnetic charge laws, noted by charge (q) in the equation, when one considers a **single electron mass and charge** and the distance to be equal to the **electron’s classical radius**. Amazingly, the matter laws from Einstein to Newton can be related to charge laws such as Coulomb’s law. These force equations are expressed in classical constants:

### Einstein’s Mass-Force = Coulomb’s Law

Einstein’s mass-energy (E=mc^{2}) in force form at the electron’s radius (*left side of equation*) is exactly equal to Coulomb’s law (*right side of the equation*). Note that Coulomb’s constant is replaced by the magnetic constant form where k=*μ*_{0}c^{2}/4π. Force (F) is dependent on the only variable in the equation which is distance (r).

### Newton’s Gravitation = Force of Electron’s Magnetic Moment

Newton’s law of universal gravitation (*left side of equation) *is equal to the force of the electron’s magnetic moment (*right side of equation*), as noted by the Bohr magneton (*μ*_{B}). Force (F) is dependent on the only variable in the equation which is distance (r).

### Newton’s 2nd Law = Distinti’s Induction Force

Newton’s second law, F=ma, (*left side of equation) *is equal to the force of induction (*right side of equation*) according to Robert Distinti’s New Induction when the distance (r) is the electron’s classical radius. Note that Distinti’s equation uses constant K_{m}, where K_{m}=*μ*_{0}/4π. It is replaced by its original constants in this form. Force (F) is dependent on the only variable in the equation which is acceleration (a).

### Centripetal Force = Distinti’s Magnetic Force

Newton’s laws of motions derive the centripetal force, F=mv^{2}/r, (*left side of equation).* This equation for motion is equal to the force of electromagnetism (*right side of equation*) for a single particle according to Robert Distinti’s New Magnetism when the distance (r) is the electron’s classical radius. Note that Distinti’s equation uses constant K_{m}, where K_{m}=*μ*_{0}/4π. It is replaced by its original constants in this form. For a single particle, the velocity portion of Distinti’s equation reduces simply to v^{2}. Force (F) is dependent on the only variable in the equation which is velocity (v).

## Video – What is Charge?

The *What is Charge* video below provides a description of charge and an explanation of its behaviors.