# Constants

## Background

Constants are used throughout equations in physics. In fact, there are at least 26 fundamental physical constants that are used to describe the universe. Many of these constants are found in the constants table on this site. Perhaps the most interesting constants that appear in equations are the Planck constants, because their meaning is not clearly understood, yet they fit seamlessly into equations. ## Explanation

In energy wave theory, all of the calculations for particles, atoms, photons and forces on this site use one of two methods: classical or wave equations. Each method requires a total of only five constants to achieve the calculations and are also shown to derive 23 fundamental physical constants. Four of the classical constants are Planck constants.

### Classical Constants

1. Planck mass (kg)
2. Planck length (m)
3. Planck time (s)
4. Planck charge (m)

### Wave Constants

1. Wave speed (m/s)
2. Wave amplitude (m)
3. Wavelength (m)
4. Density (kg/m3)
5. Electron wave center count (dimensionless)
classical constants energy wave constants

The page on mechanics describes why these two separate methods can be used to calculate energies and forces. Here on this page, the Planck constants are described and how they are related to the wave constants.

### Wave Speed (Speed of Light)

In the geometry of the spacetime lattice, it was found that the values that resolve the equations correctly are the same values that Max Planck found naturally in physics equations. A granule is represented by a small mass with a radius of Planck length (lP), and when in motion at the speed of light, it takes Planck time (tP) to travel the radius. Relationship: Wave speed is related to Planck length over Planck time. A separate derivation of the speed of light based on a force divided by linear density was found in The Relationship of the Speed of Light to Aether Density paper, which relates the equations for the speed of light to the speed of sound. More information is available here.

### Wave Amplitude

When granules are displaced, they eventually return to equilibrium. This harmonic motion produces wave-like effects as the displacement over time can be graphed as a sine wave.  The displacement of a granule colliding with a wave center and its displacement is shown on the left in the figure below. The Planck charge (qP) is the longitudinal peak-to-peak displacement, whereas wave equations typically use amplitude (A), which is equilibrium-to-peak. The sine wave form is illustrated on the bottom right of the figure graphing a granule’s displacement over time. Relationship: Longitudinal wave amplitude is half of Planck charge. Not including g-factors. The wave constants assume a universal reference frame, whereas Planck constants are from experiments measured on Earth that is moving against this reference frame.

### Wavelength

As granules are displaced and collide, they form wavefronts.  The displacement distance of Planck charge occurs in two directions, each having a limit as granules collide. This limit is based on Euler’s number (e), the base of natural logarithms.  This is the point where wavefronts form.  Granules spread spherically and results in the square of Euler’s number being used as the limit to the distance of the longitudinal wavefronts. Relationship: Longitudinal wavelength is two times Planck charge and the square of Euler’s number. A separate derivation is used for the final calculation of wavelength used in EWT based on the electron particle. Not including g-factors.

### Density

Much like the Plank mass, density is a misleading property. The universe is very dense at 4 x 1022 kg/m3, yet most of this mass is not stored in particles. It may be more appropriate to consider the concept of kinetic mass and stored mass. Both are related to the motion of granules, yet stored mass occurs when standing waves form, which creates particles. Refer to the Particles section for more information.

In a hydrogen atom of one proton and one electron, only a fraction of the mass is stored in particles. Kinetic mass/energy exists between the two particles, but it cannot be weighed and is therefore not currently believed to be mass. Nevertheless energy exists in the hydrogen sphere and it is responsible for the forces between the electron and proton and for photons that can be created and absorbed by the atom.

If all the masses of granules within hydrogen collapse to the center, into a particle around the radius of Planck length and mass of Planck mass, it is called a black hole. It is this mass – the Planck mass – that is the total sum of granule mass within a hydrogen sphere. This mass divided by the volume of hydrogen results in the density property of the universe.  This same density can be achieved using multiple methods (see below). Relationship: Density is the Planck mass divided by the volume of a hydrogen sphere (a0 is the Bohr radius of hydrogen). Density was derived using three different methods in The Relationship of the Speed of Light to Aether Density paper, arriving at the same value each time.  In addition, the paper derives a linear density which is known as the magnetic constant. More information is available here. Not including g-factors.

### Electron Wave Center Count

The final wave constant has no relationship to Planck constants. Particles are based on a collection of wave centers (K) that are responsible for creating standing waves, which becomes stored mass/energy measured as particles.

Most of the calculations of energies and forces are based on the electron particle, so the value for its wave center count (K=10) is found in many of the EWT equations. It is described below as a three-level tetrahedron. Relationship: None.