# Gravitational Constant

## Explanation

Isaac Newton was the first to calculate the laws of gravity and the gravitational effects on Earth and other planets/stars.  The gravitational constant (G) first appeared in Newton’s gravity equations, and later in Albert Einstein’s equations for general relativity. Force is related to mass and the distance between objects, but G remains the constant in Newton’s force equation.

The electric force is modeled with the wave amplitude reduction equal to gravitational coupling constants for the electron and proton.  For two particles like two electrons, the slight reduction is negligible in force measurements.  For a large body of electrically neutral particles (atoms with protons and electrons that cancel), the destructive amplitude reduction begins to have noticeable effects.  The wave equation that models forces naturally contains the constants that make up the complex G constant, and is shown below. ## Derivation – Gravitational Constant

In classical format, the gravitational constant can be derived from Planck length, Planck mass and Planck time. In wave format, it comes from the electric force equation that is a reduction of amplitude for each particle slightly losing energy when in-waves transition to out-waves. See the page dedicated to the derivation of G for the complete derivation.

### Wave Constant Form Using classical constants Using energy wave constants

Calculated Value: 6.6741E-11
Difference from CODATA: 0.000%
Calculated Units: m3 / s2 kg
G-Factor: gλ3

### Alternative Derivation

An alternative derivation in classical form is shown by simplifying it with the speed of light constant (c): Its value was calculated and shown to match the known value in the Summary of Calculations table. The derivation of this constant is available in the Fundamental Physical Constants paper.